Subjunctive (or conditional) mood

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Now we come to a very difficult set of problems, namely those connected with the subjunctive (or conditional) mood. The chief difficulty analysis has to face here is the absence of a mutual relation between meaning and form. Sometimes the same external series of signs will have two or more different meanings depending on factors lying outside the form itself, and outside the meaning of the verb; sometimes the same modal meaning will be expressed by two different series of external signs. Let’s take, for example, the sequence we should come, which means one thing in the sentence: I think we should come here again to-morrow (here we should come is equivalent to we ought to come); it means another thing in the sentence: If we knew that he wants us we should come to see him

(here we should come denotes a conditional, i.e. an action depending on certain conditions), and it means another thing again in the sentence: How queer that we should come at the very moment when you were talking about us! (here we should come denotes an action which has actually taken place and which is considered as an object for comment). The second point may be illustrated by comparing of two sentences, I suggest that he go and he I suggest that should go, and we will for the present neglect the fact that the first of the two variants is more typical of American, and the second of British English. Matters are still further complicated by two phenomena where we are faced with a choice between polysemy and homonymy. One of these concerns forms like lived, knew , etc. Such

forms appear in two types of contexts, of which one may be exemplified by the sentences, He lived here five years ago, or I knew it all alone, and the other by the sentences, If he lived here he would come at once, or, If I knew his address I should write to him. In sentences of the first type the form obviously is the past tense of the indicative mood. The second type admits of two interpretations: either the forms lived, knew, etc are the same forms of past indicative that were used in the first type, but they have acquired another meaning in this particular context, or else the forms lived, knew, etc. are forms of some other mood, which only happen to be homonymous with forms of the past indicative but are basically different. Subjunctive mood may express suppositional or

desirable action. 1.    The verb to be has in present tense the form be for all singular and plural persons. The verb to be in the past tense has the form were for singular and plural persons (I be, I were respectively). 2.         Forms be or were are used for formation of Present and Past Subjunctive mood in Passive voice (I be sent, I were sent respectively). 3.         All other verbs in subjunctive mood differ from indicative mood by the form of the third person of the Present time without ending –s. Using of forms of Subjunctive mood.

                                      I.    The forms of Present Subjunctive of the verb to be and of other verbs are used : a)    In subordinate clauses of subject, beginning with conjunction that after impersonal turns such as: it is necessary (необходимо), it is important (важно), it is desirable (желательно) and so on: Ex. It is desirable that he be there at 5 o’clock. (Желательно, чтобы он был здесь в пять часов.) b)    In subordinate clauses of object, expressing order, offer,