Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 3

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predicates are divided into verbal and nominal: The moon rose. The moon was pale. There exists a phraseological predicate (presents a combination of such verbs as have, get, give, take and a verbal noun (give a look, take a bath, have a smoke). From the grammatical point of view the most important characteristic of this type of predicate is not so much its phraseological but its analytical character (all analytical structures are characterized by idiomaticity of their components). The verb expresses the grammatical meaning and the verbal noun expresses a lexical meaning. The two formal types of the predicate correspond to the two main semantic types: process predicate which expresses the action, the state or the existence of the subject and qualification predicate which expresses

the quality (property) of the subject. The process predicate can be further subdivided into several types in accordance with the semantic types of verbs: existential (There was a tavern in the town), statal (He slept), locative (The elephant lives in India), relational (He had a small ranch) and actional (The car broke down). The qualification predicate has three subtypes: identifying (So you are the man we have been looking for), classifying (My friend is a student) and characterizing (My wife is a bit of an actress. He was too German).Structurally the predicate may be divided into simple and compound. We said good- bye - a simple verbal predicate; It was a lovely place -simple nominal predicate. The predicate is compounded by the introduction of modal or aspective components.

We started saying good-bye - a compound verbal predicate; It must be a lovely place - a compound nominal predicate. 6. Secondary parts of sentence. Difficulties of their classification. The theory of the secondary parts (SP) is one of the last developed sections of linguistics. The object is a SP of the sentence, referring to a part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a noun, a substan’tival pronoun, an adj., a numeral, or an adv., and denoting a thing to which the action passes on, which is a result of the action, in reference(относительно) to which an action is committed(совершено) or a property(св-во, кач-во) is manifested(проявляться), or denoting an action as object of another action. An object can refer to any part of speech

capable of being a part of the sentence. Attribute is a SP of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed by a noun, a substantival pronoun, a cardinal (колич.) numeral, and any substantivized word, and characterizing the thing named by these words as to its quality or property. The attribute, as distinct from the object, cannot modify (определять) a verb, an adj, an adv, the attribute expresses a property while the object expresses a thing, but they both can modify a noun, a pronoun, a numeral. Adv. modifier is a SP of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a verbal noun, an adj, an adv, and serving to characterize an action or a property as to its quality or intensity, or to indicate the way an action is done, the time, the

place, cause, purpose, condition, with which the action or the manifestation of the quality is connected. 7. Suffixation as a means of form-building in modern English. The grammatical meaning finds its expression in a grammatical form. There are several types of form-building in English. The main subdivision of form-building types is into synthetic and analytical. In a synthetic type a grammatical meaning is expressed within a word, in an analytical type a grammatical meaning is expressed with the help of auxiliary words (plus suffixes). The synthetic types of form-building in English include affixation (reads, shown, books, theirs etc.), sound interchange (take - took, shine - shone) and suppletivity (go - went, be -was, good - better – best). .The only productive type in the

present-day English is affixation, but the other two types are no less important, if only because they occur in words which are most frequently used. The number of inflectional suffixes in modern English is very small: ‘s’ – the plural forms of nouns, the Genitive case, used to build the 3 person singular; ‘ed’ – the past tense, Part II in regular verbs; ‘ing’ – Part I, the Gerund; ‘er’ – the comparative degree of the adj.; ‘ist’ – the superlative degree – they are fairly productive in modern English; ‘en’ – the plural form of the noun ox – oxen, the past participle in irregular verbs; ‘ren’ – the plural form of the noun child; ‘ne’ – mine; ‘m’ – to build the objective case of the personal pronouns – him, them – they