Шпоры по теоретической грамматике английского языка — страница 10

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own semantic and structural categories: The main semantic categories: -           Information(Any text should carry complete information; it should express a certain communication.) -           Profundity(the text should have some depth, some food for thinking, some idea, which may either be expressed, or may be understood implicitly) -           Presupposition(there should be some level at which communicate otherwise there may be complete misunderstanding.) -           Completeness(The text should be complete in meaning, it shouldn’t be abrupt) Structural Cathegories:

1)        Integration (целостность) -           use certain logical connections and connectors, a certain composition, a certain word order. 2)        Cohesion (связь) -           necessary property of any text which differentiates it from disconnected utterances. There are various means of text cohesion (когезия): syntactic, semantic, stylistic. -           BLOCH: gram.connectives. 1) Conjunction-like connectives – coordinative, subordinative conjunctions and adverbial and parenthetical sentence connectors such as: yet, then, however,

moreover. 2) Substitutional connection – use of substitutes: pronouns. 3)        Retrospection & Prospection -           (means of text cohesion). Retrospection refers the reader to the preceding events, prospection – to the following events 4)        Continuum -           the text should continue without breaking, it shouldn’t be abrupt. Deictic (связующие) elements, tense forms, number forms, mood forms 5) Polyphony - a good text usually has more than one line of thinking, of reasoning, which is most of all important for fiction 11. Correlation btw various means of form-building in ME. There

are two principal types of form-building means: synthetic and analytical. The synthetic form-building means is the expression of the relation of words in the sentence by means of a change in the word itself. There are three types of the synthetic form-building means: -           affixation -           sound interchange (morphological alteration) -           suppletion (suppletive means) Affixation is the most productive means of expressing a grammatical meaning. The number of grammatical suffixes is small (8). They are:-s, -ed, -ing, -er, -est, -en, -m (him, them, whom), zero. Sound interchange is a change of a sound in the root of

the word. There exist two kinds of sound interchange – vowel and consonant ones (spend – spent). This type of form-building means is non-productive. In suppletive forms there is a complete change of the phonetic shape of the root. Suppletive forms belonging to the paradigm of a certain word were borrowed from different sources. Suppletive forms are found in the paradigm of such words as TO BE, TO GO, degrees of comparison of the adjectives GOOD, BAD and in case-forms of some pronouns (I-me, she-her, we-us). Блох notes that suppletivity can be recognized in the paradigm of some modal verbs too: CAN – BE ABLE, MUST – HAVE TO, MAY – BE ALLOWED. Moreover, he says that it can be observed in pronouns (ONE – SOME), NOUNS (INFORMATION – PIECES OF INFORMATION, MAN –

PEOPLE). Suppletive forms are few in number, non-productive, but very important, for they are frequently used Analytical forms were described as a combination of an auxiliary and a notional word. This definition is not precise enough and due to its ambiguity (неясность) such word-combinations as TO THE CHILD, MORE INTERESTING were treated as analytical forms. To define a true analytical form the theory of splitting (разделение) of functions should be taken into account. There must be a splitting of functions between the elements of an analytical form. The first (auxiliary) element is the bearer of a grammatical meaning only. It is completely devoid of lexical meaning, and it is the second (notional) element that is the bearer of lexical meaning. This process