Рыночная экономика

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Market economies 1Throughout history, every society has faced the fundamental economic problem of deciding what to produce, and for whom.2In the last decade of the 20th century, yet for many, the fundamental principles and mechanisms of the alternative, a market economy, remain unfamiliar or misunderstood.3The market economy is not ideology. 4Market economies are decentralized, flexible, practical and changeable.5There is no centre.6Market economies rest upon the fundamental principle of individual freedom. 7In market economies economic systems are subdivided into three sectors.8The primary sector comprises the extraction of economic goods from nature.9The secondary sector comprises handicrafts and industrial manufacturing of goods and services such as fuel and power and the

provision of water.10The tertiary sector consists of all final services: trade, transport, banking, etc.11In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy.12The government does not intervene in it.30Market economies are directed by prices.31In a free market economy, prices are determined by the interaction of the forces of supply and demand. 32Demand varies inversely with price.13The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production.14Private supplies of capital can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. 15Workers are paid wages by employers.16They spend their wages on the products and services they need.17Consumers are willing to spend more on products and

services, which are favoured.18Firms producing these goods will make more profits. 19In a market economy it is consumers who decide what is to be produced.20The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands.21Firms tend to be highly competitive.22New advanced product and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits.23In a free market individual people are free to pursue their own interests. 24There are also problems.25Some goods would be underpurchased if the government did not provide free or subsidized supplies.26A cornerstone of the market system is that production alters swiftly to meet changing demands.27In a market economy there might be minimal control on working conditions and safety standards concerning products and services.28It is necessary to have

large-scale government to pass laws to protect consumers and workers.29Firms have to have confidence in future sales if they are to produce new goods and services. Перевод: 1.На протяжении всей истории, каждое общество сталкивалось с фундаментальной экономической проблемой, решающей что производить и для кого. 2В последнее десятилетие 20 века, еще для многих, основные принципы и механизмы альтернативы, рыночной экономики, остаются незнакомыми или неправильно понимаемыми.3Рыночная экономика не имеет

идеологии.4Рыночные экономики – децентрализованы, гибкие, практичные и неустойчивые (изменчивые).5Там нет центра.6Рыночные экономики опираются на основной принцип личной свободы.7В рыночных экономиках экономические системы подразделяются на три сектора.8Первичный сектор включает добывание экономических товаров из природы.9Второстепенный сектор охватывает ремесла и промышленное производство товаров и услуг, таких как