Рекламирование (Advertising) — страница 2
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performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user’. This is a simple explanation of what happens. The key phrases are: ‘from producer to consumer ’, and ‘the flow of goods’. This is the fate of every product as it makes its way from the manufacturer’s loading platform to its final destination – into your hands. A great many things happen to it. Advertising is one of the things that happen. These forces all work together. 1. The quality, appearance, and performance of the product. 2. How much it costs. 3. Where you can buy it. 4. The promotional efforts, including advertising, that help to sell it. Sometimes advertising can be very important. For another product, distribution may be the vital force. The Consumer and Why He Acts the Way He Does Images The ‘image makers’ are all around us, and they are not confined to advertising. Publicists and press agents, retained by individuals, are paid to develop or change images. The Hollywood drum – beaters have in the past created ‘sex kittens’ out of some very ordinary country girls. Corporate Images People, through their own efforts or the efforts of others, can reflect a certain image. Business can also fix a certain place for them in the public regard. To many large companies the ‘corporate image’ is very important and carefully protected. Sometimes a company must fight to overcome an industry image. This is about corporate images for big companies. Does this apply to a smaller businessman? It certainly does. When a local retailer institutes a policy of ‘return the merchandise and your money refunded with no questions asked’, the seller is saying to the consumer, “I’m the kind of strait, honest guy you can trust me”. For example, a jeweler in a small town who appears on TV every now and then, talks about his merchandise. He is talking about them with pride and affection and knowledge. There’s absolutely nothing professional about his accent or his delivery. Honest jeweler with whom you’d like to do a business. Trade Marks, Labels, and Logotypes To help remember who is doing the talking, companies and products have ways of branding themselves just as a rancher brands a calf so that he can distinguish it from other ranchers’ calves. The ‘brands’ fall into different categories: Brand names: Usually this is a mad – up name which should be unique and memorable. Copywriters often spend hours thinking up new names for products. Some well – known trade names are Exxon, Teflon, and Maybelline. Symbols: These are literally ‘brands’ which could be reproduced in iron and burned into surface. Names: To help keep its name memorable. Logotypes: You will usually find these at the base of the advertisement, and often they are a combination of the company name, a symbol, and slogan if they have one. Labels: By means of color and design, labels brand a family of products, such as Campbell Soup, Maxwell House Coffee. Trade characters: The symbol can be a human or a cartoon character. Layout design: Sometimes a brand will immediately identify itself by the design of its advertising layout. Slogans: These are catchy, memorable lines that put a ‘handle’ on the company. For example Coca Cola’s “It’s the real thing” or “You can be sure if it’s Wasting House”. It’s important to be very careful while thinking up a brand name for a product. Many brand names have been thought up, registered, and never used. All slogans, symbols, names, and so on, must be ‘searched’. The Different Kinds of Advertising Advertising people recognize a number of different kinds of forms of advertising. They are differentiated from one another according to the different jobs they are designed to do. Now let’s take a look at these different kinds of advertising, and we will fix in our minds the role they play in the marketing process. Institutional or Corporate Advertising This often projects an image of the company. It’s just as important for a company to have a good character and a good reputation as it is for individual business person, and for exactly for the same reasons. Your name has a great deal to do with the consumer – buying decision. The fact is, all companies have characters and personalities of their own, and those characteristics affect their relationship with buyers and sellers alike. Trade or Professional Advertising Ordinarily you don’t see trade or professional advertising unless you pick up a publication directed to a particular trade or a profession.
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