Правозащитная деятельность ООН — страница 4

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have an opportunity to depart from the ideological collisions on questions of human rights and to begin to consider aspects of interstate relations as cooperation for achievement of such great values - rights and freedoms of the person. Now such conventional bodies act: Committee on Liquidation of Race Discrimination, created according to the International Convention on Liquidation of All Forms of Race Discrimination, December 21, 1965 (since April 7, 1969 Ukraine participates in this Convention); the Human Rights Committee, created according to International Pact on Civil and Political rights, December 16, 1966, (Ukraine participates in this Pact since November 19, 1973); Committee on Liquidation of Discrimination of Women, created according to the Convention on Liquidation of

All forms of Discrimination of Women, December 18, 1979 (since September 3, 1981 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee Against Tortures, created according to the Convention Against Tortures and Other Severe or Humiliating Honor Kinds of Behaviour and Punishment, December 10, 1984 (since June 26, 1987 Ukraine participates in this Convention), Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, created according to the International Pact on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, December 16, 1966 (Ukraine is a member of this Pact since November 19, 1973), Committee on Chidren's Rights, created according to the Convention on Children's Rights, October 20, 1989 (Ukraine is a member of this Convention since September 27, 1989). The named committees consist of 18 members,

which should be citizens of country - members of appropriate conventions and which are people of high moral and which are competent in the field of human rights. The members of the committees are chosen by secret voting by country - members of the appropriate convention for a period of 4 years. Such procedure of creation of committees gives them an opportunity to solve difficult, complex tasks of protection of human rights in the states, which have signed appropriate international documents. It is clear that an important element of activity of these international bodies concerning the realization of agreements are obligations of the member countries to participate in their activity and to adhere their decisions. That is a feature of the whole process of protection of human rights

with the help of international conventional bodies. If in the national legislation there is a law, which is realized due to the activity of courts or state bodies, the international bodies lean exclusively to cooperation of the countries, which take the obligations. When the country refuses to participate in the convention on protection of these or other rights of the person, it does not take international measures concerning realization of these rights. The competence of the named committees is largely stopped. It is nessesary to consider the Human Rights Committee work. According to the Pact the Committee receives and considers reports of member countries on the taken measures for realization of the rights proclaimed in this international document. After consideration of the

reports the Committee approves recommendations to the member countries concerning realization of civil and political rights.The Committee can make remarks of general character, which explain the statements of the Pact and help member countries to realize human rights.The Committee also considers complaints of member countries of abuse of these statements by other member country. In this case the Committee grants its service for permission of this argument, and in case of disagreement of the countries nominates a special commission. May be the most important authority of the Committee is its right to assort arguments of persons and international non-state organizations about abuse of human rights by the member country. The Committee receives such right only with the specific

agreement of the member countries. The Optional Protocol to the International Pact on Civil and Political Rights of December 16, 1966 was adopted, according to which the member countries of the Pact take an obligation to admit the competence of the Committee to consider arguments of countries. The members of the Pact are 93 countries, and The Optional Protocol was ratified only by 53 countries. Ukraine ratified this document on November 25, 1991. So each person in Ukraine can address the Committee with complaints on abuse of civil and political rights provided in the Pact. However, there is an important requirement: the Committee considers such complaint only when all national opportunities of legal protection were used. So in Ukraine the person should address for the protection