Правозащитная деятельность ООН — страница 2

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applied or it is applying very seldom in practice. We have a selective approach to recognition of international obligations in the sphere of protection of rights, that is not allowed in practice of other states. Just due to such approach we did not ratify, have not joined, have not accepted or not approved a significant number of important international pacts, agreements, conventions. The plenty of ratified by Ukraine international pacts does not act concerning our state because we have used the stipulated in them gear of realization in a very specific way. In the international contractual activity of Ukraine the negative tendency to sign international pacts on human rights without output of domestic gear of their realization was expanded. The practice not to publish the text of

ratified documents and conventions in the sphere of human rights or to publish by a small edition or with a 5-10 year delay has become rather widespread. It is possible to consider natural the inconsistency of the Ukrainian legislation with international obligations of state. Practically only in the last years the authority of international pacts on human rights has become admitted by our officials. Some integral rights of the person are absolutly unknown to our state or are admitted only on the paper. It is necessary to achieve the real, guaranteed maintenance of such integral rights and freedoms as: right to life, right to freedom of opinions and the free manifestation of them, right to ideological (with exception of the ideological movements, forbidden by modern international

legislation), religious, cultural freedom, right to participation in political life and management, right to freedom of print, to reception and distribution of information, right to strike, right to healthy environment, right to an acceptable living standard, necessary for health support, well-being, honour, right to access depending on abilities and professional training to any posts in state bodies, establishments, organizations, right to protect rights and freedoms according to the legislation, right to property indemnification of moral damage, caused by illegal actions of state bodies, by officials and other persons, right to leave the country and to return to it, right to appeal to the court in the case of illegal arrest, detention, refuse in the opening or closing of a

criminal case, right of citizens to free movement and to choose a place of residing in the country, right to property indemnification in case of illegal detention, arrest, conviction, illegal dismissal from a post, illegal location in mental establishments, etc. The named rights are usual for the world practice. We have to lead the legislation of Ukraine to conformity with international standards in the sphere of human rights but this step will not give necessary results without solution of a problem how to increase literacy of the population in the sphere of international standards. The lack of information in this sphere influences the decrease of legal culture. UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE After the Second World war under the influence of the facts of mutual abuse of

human rights the general recognition was received by the concept of necessity of the international cooperation in this sphere. In item 3 of article 1 of The UNO Constitution it was proclaimed that one of the UNO tasks is realization of joint activity of the state members. This activity is directed to the human rights be respected and adhered by all, irrespective of race, sex, language and religion. According to this item Ukraine as one of the UNO founders has taken the obligations to act independently or together with other states in order to achieve a world wide respect of human rights and their realization. In the Declaration of State Independence of Ukraine, July 16, 1990 a priority of common to all mankind values above class values and a priority of conventional norms of the

international legislation above norms of domestic legislation were confirmed. And by this Ukraine confirms its readiness to adhere the UNO Constitution. In the Law "On the Action of International Agreements on the Territory of Ukraine", December 10, 1991 was established, that signed and properly ratified by Ukraine international agreements are an integral part of the legislation of Ukraine and are used in the order, stipulated for norms of the national legislation. In the basis of this Law there is recognition of the priority of the common for all mankind values and the general principles of the international legislation and will to supply the unviolability of human rights and freedoms and to join the system of legal relations between states on the basis of mutual