Правозащитная деятельность ООН

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INTERNATIONAL SLAVONIC UNIVERSITY (KHARKOV) DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS AND BUSINESS HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION AND PROTECTION. UNO ACTIVITY . Essay of the second year student Darya Ivanova Tutor - N. Dolinina KHARKOV 1996 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. UNO ACTIVITY IN HUMAN RIGHTS SPHERE 3. THE INTERNATIONAL GEAR OF PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 4. HUMAN RIGHTS IN UKRAINE 5. POLITICAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN UKRAINE 6. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS 7. FREEDOM OF VOICE 8. CONCLUSIONS 9. RESUME INTRODUCTION In the period after acceptance of the Declaration of State Independence in Ukraine was considerably made more active state and political activity in the sphere of human rights. A parlamentary committee on human rights is created, there is accepted a number of acts,

aimed at strenghtening of legal status of citizens, legal base of protection of human rights and freedom is updated as a whole. A set of nation-wide, regional and local right-defence organizations were registered, international contacts with interstate and non-government organizations are adjusting. These organizations have devoted their activity to the protection of the person in today's difficult, rigid and even severe world. Many international pacts, agreements and conventions on human rights and freedoms were signed. There was considerably improved the integration of Ukraine in the international right-defence gear, real steps to increase the warranties of fulfillment of international obligations in human rights sphere were made. Much more forums are conducted with the

dominant idea of protection of Ukrainian citizen's and foreigner's (which are on the territory of Ukraine) rights and freedoms. New magazines on human rights are established, lectures are read, special and optonal cources on human rights are organized, educational programs are distributed. Much attention is paid to the educational aspect of the problem. National and international conferences and symposiums, "round tables" and readings on urgent problems of development of institute of human rights and protection of political, social and economic rights, freedoms and legal interests of the person are carried out. In other words "the requirement of all-round maintenance of human rights and freedoms" has become not simply a line of preamble of the Declaration of

State Independence of Ukraine but the program of state and political activity of citizens of Ukraine and foreigners, which permanently or temporary stay in our country. But it will be an error to overestimate the first shifts in the right-defence sphere. Despite all the achievements in this sphere the situation of the person in Ukraine remains hard and unprotected. There are a lot of reasons and there is a great number of explanations of this fact. It is possible to refer to the absence of a legal state with precisely distributed functions of legislative, executive and judicial powers. Frankly speaking, these branches are imperfect because of the political traditions in all the contries of the former USSR . For example, the judicial power continues to act with the main idea of

punishment, instead of protection of rights and freedoms of citizens. Frequently jealous relations between right-defence organizations make public right defence movement weak. It is not so influental and effective as should be. The habit to make acts in the field of human rights propagandistic by character has overload them by political, moral or simply ideological admonitions. As it frequently happens it is heavy to separate from them really legal statements, it sometimes makes impossible protection of rights, honour and interests of the person. As a rule there remains inconsistency of national legal acts with international pacts and conventions on human rights. The principle of priority of international norms in the matters of human rights is recognized by the law, but is not