Portuguese emigration after World War II — страница 9

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Germany are not accounted for in the Portuguese official statistics. More specifically, comparing the French and Portuguese sources indicates that for the period 1960-69, 48 percent of emigration to France went unregistered by Portuguese sources, and 81 percent for 1970-79. For Germany, the Portuguese migratory flow is unregistered by 27 percent for 1962-69 and by 42 percent in 1970-79 (see Table 10.6). Previous works considered only illegal emigration to France. The totals are therefore different from the ones presented in this paper. See, e.g., J. C. Ferreira de Almeida, “A emigração portuguesa para a França: alguns aspectos quantitativos,” Análise Social 2: 7/8 (1964), 599-622; M. L. Marinho Antunes, “Migrações, mobilidade social e identidade cultural: factos e

hipóteses sobre o caso português,” ibid. 19: 65 ( 1981 ), 17-37; Stahl, Perspectivas da emigração. 10 The last annual Boletim available from the Secretaria de Estado das Comunidades Portuguesas is for 1988. 11 See William S. Bernard, “History of U.S. Immigration Policy,” in Immigration, by R. Easterlin et al. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), 103. 12 France, Office Nationale d’Immigration, quoted by Seruya, “Determinantes e características,” 52; and OECD, SOPEMI Reports, 1985, 1988, and 1990 (Paris: OECD). 13 Caroline Brettell, Men Who Migrate, Women Who Wait: Population and History in a Portuguese Parish (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986). 14 Ibid., 68. 15 The most relevant works are Manuela Silva et al., Retorno, emigração e

desenvolvimento regional em Portugal (Lisbon: Instituto de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento, 1984); Eduardo S. Ferreira, Reintegração dos emigrantes portugueses: integração na CEE e desenvolvimento económico (Lisbon: CEDEP/AE ISE), 1984; Amadeu Paiva, Portugal e a Europa. O fim de um ciclo migratório (Lisbon: IED-CEDEP, 1985); Michel Poinard, “Emigrantes portugueses: o regresso,” Análise Social 19:75 (1983), 29-56. 16 After the mid-1980s, the information available points to a decrease in the level of returns. At the end of the decade, returns were between 25,000 and 26,000. 17 Poinard’s study, “Emigrantes portugueses: o regresso,” based on 3,792 documents and files on Portuguese processes for aid return presented to French authorities in 1978, gives a slightly

different portrait of the migrants returning from France. The mean duration of the stay in France was 9.5 years. 18 Employment was quite different in France and Germany. In France, 49 percent of the returnees worked in construction and 25 percent in manufacturing; in Germany, 13 percent worked in construction and 60 percent in manufacturing. 19 The most frequent reasons for return were missing the family and native land and concern with the children’s education, 35 percent; and health, retirement, and labor accidents, 26 percent. 20 See SECP, Boletim anual 1988: 83. For returns see Silva, Retorno, emigração e desenvolvimento, 49-52; Stahl, Perspectivas da emigrção, 17. 21 Alfredo M. Pereira, “Trade-Off Between Emigration and Remittances in the Portuguese Economy,”

Faculdade de Economia – Universidade Nova de Lisboa Working Paper 129, 1989. 22 A. Sedas Nunes, “Portugal: sociedade dualista em evolução,” Análise Social 2: 7/8 (1964), 407-62; Carlos Almeida and António Barreto, Capitalismo e emigração em Portugal, 3d ed. (Lisbon: Prelo, 1976); Joel Serrão, A emigração portuguesa: sondagem histórica, 3d ed. (Lisbon: Livros Horizonte, 1977; Vitorino Magalhães Godinho, A estrutura da antiga sociedade portuguesa (Lisbon: Arcádia, 1978). 23 Eduardo S. Ferreira, Origens e formas da emigração (Lisbon: Iniciativas Editoriais, 1976); José P. Barosa and Pedro T. Pereira, “Economic Integration and Labour Flows: The European Single Act and Its Consequences”’ FE-UNL Working Paper 123, 1988; A. M. Pereira, “Trade-Off Between

Emigration and Remittances.” 24 Barosa and Pereira, “Economic Integration and Labour Flows,” 8. 25 Stahl, Perspectivas da emigração; I. J. Seccombe and R. J. Lawless, “Some New Trends in Mediterranean Labour Migration: The Middle East Connection” International Migration 23:1 (1985), 123-48; Barosa and Pereira, “Economic Integration and Labour Flows.” 26 Barosa and Pereira, “Economic Integration and Labour Flows,” 13. 27 Amadeu Paiva, Portugal e a Europa. O fim de um ciclo migratório (Lisbon: IED-CEDEP, 1985). 28 See the publications by Baganha cited in note I; and Baganha and João Peixoto, “Trends in the ‘90s: The Portuguese Migratory Experience” in, Immigration in Southern Europe Maria I. Baganha (ed.), Oieras, Celta, 1997:15-40.