POP ART — страница 2

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Pop furniture was one aspect of the Italian design community's wide-ranging intellectual ap­proach which, since the sixties, has made Italy the most progressive country in many areas of the applied arts. The influence of Pop can be seen in graphic design in the sixties in the work of the American Pushpin Studios, founded by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast. Pop and the Hyper-Realists also inspired the slick airbrush work of a number of graphic artists working in the seventies and eighties, notably the British artists Philip Castle and Michael English. Pop imagery is still, today, a part of the staple diet of graphic design. Pop's most notable impact on the world of fashion was in London in the late sixties and early seventies, and in Italy in the achievements of Elio

Fiorucciin the seventies. Fiorucci brought fun into fashion, and his shops, first in Milan and then internationally, became known for their Pop-inspired clothes and graphics. And it's influence can be seen also and on a graphic design in USA. POP is everywhere, we see everyday objects and images of American popular culture – Coca-Cola bottles, soup cans, sigarette packages and comic strips. Commercial photography Commercial photographic images are a major ingredient of our visual life, assimilated from magazines, hoardings and such contexts as brochures, catalogues, calendars, packaging and point-of-sale promotional material. Commercial photography thrives as a means of creating highly polished images of a stylized, glamourized and idealized view of the World in order to sell a

product or a service. The major categories of commercial photogra­phy are advertising in its countless guises, includ­ing product photography and photo-illustration, fashion, beauty and certain categories of photogra­phy which are neither reportage nor aspire to be fine art, yet which can be fascinating social docu­ments of considerable aesthetic quality. Irving Penn has continued to be a master in each of these genres and has set standards to which many aspire. His career has spanned forty years, during which his work, from his early fashion and still-life compositions to current still-life product studies such as his series for the cosmetics manu­facturers Clinique, has shown an inimitable vision and consistent aesthetic rigour. Ben Stern, though far from

being Penn's artistic equal, became the archetypal commercial photo­grapher in the fifties and sixties, running a vast studio in New York and showing considerable skill and versatility in interpreting the briefs of art directors and clients. In the sixties the profession of commercial and, in particular, fashion photography became greatly glamourized: the successful young photographer became a popular folk hero, as if the camera were a passport to the illusory world which it could depict—Antonioni's film Blow-Up (1966-7) defined the role model. Among the most interest­ing magazines to be launched in the sixties, the photography of which captured the youthful ex­citement of that period, were the British Nova, which commissioned some of the best fashion photography of

its day, and the German Twen, brilliantly art directed by Willy Fleckhaus. In the sixties advertising played a secondary role to editorial photography in magazines. Today the reverse seems true, for the character of many magazines is dictated by the market needs of advertisers and many photographers bemoan the greater restrictions this imposes. The seventies and eighties have, nonetheless, brought forth a new roll-call of talent. Outstanding contemporary figures include Helmut Newton and Guy Bourdin, who have dominated the field of fashion photogra­phy; Hans Feurer, Arthur Elgort, Denis Piel and others, a few of the less celebrated but talented fashion photographers; advertising and glamour photographers such as Francis Giacobetti, James Baes… Commercial photographers play

a great role in our consumer society, creating the images of a life-style to which we are constantly encouraged to aspire. They create glamourized images of women and give a heightened visual appeal to the products which are economic mainstay of our society, be it a hamburger, a perfume or an automobile. 1