Oxford`s teachhing methods of english language — страница 6

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the lessons might have motivated students to work more on the vocabulary items on their own, so the game might have only been a good stimulus for extra work. Although, it cannot be said that games are always better and easier to cope with for everyone, an overwhelming majority of pupils find games relaxing and motivating. Games should be an integral part of a lesson, providing the possibility of intensive practise while at the same time immensely enjoyable for both students and teachers. My research has produced some evidence which shows that games are useful and more successful than other methods of vocabulary presentation and revision. Having such evidence at hand, I wish to recommend the wide use of games with vocabulary work as a successful way of acquiring language

competence. Note-taking A Useful Device by Clara Perez Fajardo Has it ever happened that you read or listen to something, and shortly afterwards when you want to recall it, you can only remember a small part? Have you ever thought of how many interesting ideas you have missed, just because you have not taken a few seconds to note them down as they occurred to you? Everyday happenings pass through time and can never be recalled again if they are not recorded either on a tape or with a video camera. But, not many of us have these devices always handy. What we do have available is a simple sheet of paper, a pencil, and our five senses. Taking notes on what takes place not only permits us to remember but also facilitates our oral and written communication. Regardless of their age or

level, students tend to rely too much on their memory, instead of taking notes. For this reason, I began devising different tasks which demand the recall of facts that the students would have only if they had taken notes. The results have motivated me to do further research on the topic through interviews, reading, and analysis-all the time noting down the information I was obtaining. The note-taking process In order to reconstruct a complete account of what one perceives through listening, reading, observing, discussing, or thinking, it is necessary to take notes either simultaneously with the act of perception or after an interval of just a few seconds. We cannot expect to remember everything we perceive, and despite the advantages of training our memory, it is better to have

notes taken at the moment things happen. Language educators have approached note-taking from different perspectives. McKeating (1981) sees note-taking as a complex activity which combines reading and listening with selecting, summarizing, and writing. Grellet (1986) advises helping students to establish the structure of a text so they can pull out the key ideas and leave out nonessential information. Nwokoreze (1990) believes that "it is during the note-taking stage that students reach the highest level of comprehension." Two main aspects concerning note-taking: It involves the combination of different skills, i.e.; listening or reading, selecting, summarizing, and writing. It requires the selection of relevant information from the nonessential. Moreover, most authors

see note-taking as a complex activity which must be approached gradually. When teaching the skill, Raimes suggests that elementary-level students can be given a skeleton outline to work with when they take notes, so that their listening is more directed. Advanced students can listen to longer passages and make notes as they listen. Murray refers to a "rehearsal for writing," which begins as an unwritten dialogue within the writer's mind: what the writer hears in his/her head evolves into notes. This may be simple brainstorming-the jotting down of random bits of information which may connect themselves into a pattern later on. Note-taking involves putting onto paper the data received through any of our senses. These data could range from simple figures, letters, symbols,

isolated words, or brief phrases to complete sentences and whole ideas. Most teachers instruct students to take notes while perceiving . However, Nwokoreze insists on the need for first listening long enough to make sure the essence of the information is perceived before taking notes. The decision on whether the notes are to be taken at the moment of perception or shortly afterwards depends on the complexity of the task and the ability of the note-taker. Consequently, if we are to take notes with figures, letters, or single words to fill in a pre-designed skeleton, we can do it at the same time we receive the information; whereas notes which require selection, summarizing, and organization ought to be taken later. Guided note-taking As teachers, we must decide what sort of help