Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China) — страница 3

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English and sometimes only one interpreter is not enough to get the real contact.Swedish Ericsson provided all the material in English and Chinese,and spent a lot of time on correct translation.Having difficulties with duplications there was noticed that it is quite difficult to get hold of good ,up to date office equipment and stationary and that concerns to many cities,at that. Build up trust:It is commonly known that the Chinese give sufficient importance to this trust and to individual relationships.Although the Chinese always stress on the importance of friendship ,it is quite diffilcut to develop a social relationship with Chi- nese.They seldom invite anyone to their houses.In spite of this,“friendship“ and „trust“ are common aspects of Chinese culture, rather not

only in China ,but throughout Hong Kong,Singapore,Taiwan and other countries.The impressions and trust that developed through the mutual relations and social activities will be return a hundredfold later. BUDGET OFFER After all the presentations,questions,answers,and discussions a budget offer is prepared. The purpose is to provide the customer with an idea of general principles,technology, equipment,price and the terms and conditions as a whole.Usually a client gets a lot of offers,many of them are similar to each other.Then the offers and the budget undergo comparison .As this offer has to include a rough price,the firms should be very careful in calculating all the possible expenses as it is very difficult to change the the total sum later.And the price for training,taxes,and

other expenses should be included .Otherwise, the company would lose its credibility. TECHNICAL DISCUSSIONS All the firms are invited for the technical discussions after the customer has studied all budget offers and technical characteristics from different competitors.Here the firms represent their technolgy and technical specifications,but strictly with in the framework of budget offer.At this stage the firms which are dealing in Chinese market should try to get more information on the particular project,the priorities of the government,the buyer’s budget capacity and the general opinion as regards dealing as a whole . It could be desireable for investors to invite the Chinese to visit their country just to let them observe the techical system ,which are being offered in

operation.This kind of opportunity is also used for friendship developing and trust. This stage is considered as the only chance to take the advantage of being host. Generally,the Chinese are used to be an initative part of negotiations when the ones take place at home. Pye explained that in the following way: „As hosts,the Chinese take advantage of their control over the pace of negotiations. First they set agend,then they suggest that the Americans start the discussions.This makes the guest show their hands-their proposals become the starting point from which compromises follow.In order to keep the process going ,the Chinese expect the visitor to make the next concessions,for what the Chinese easily press for. FINAL OFFER After the technical discussions mentioned above,the

firm knows what exactly a potential customer needs.Based on this,they arrive at the final offer with all detailed specifications. Chinese customers are very particular about details,therefore it is advisable to have all instructions and references to be translated into Chinese.The firms also have to detail all the cost and benefits to prevent misunderstanding in future.The minimum and maximum limits for the different issues should be also calculated and conveyed to all members of the team. The unexpected costs and expenses should be taken into consideration.Ideally,the negotiators should have several alternatives to facilitate the process of negotiating. FORMAL NEGOTIATIONS Due to the recent decentralization process,foreign firm can directly negotiate with Chinese firms.Although

most of these are still state-owned.Their desicion making policy is various.For example ,some of these companies have their own foreign exchange while others depend upon the government allocations. Some firms may have some projects approved while others have to apply for it. We know that various executives take part in negotiations even politicians.On the Western side ,the negotiators are: technology managers,area managers,technical support, and an intermediary(liasion officer).The Chinese use different tactics to get the informa- tion they are really need ,using many tricks which are quite invisible for beginners. Tactics such as flattery,embarrasment,and usage of historical facts to their advantage are the good examples. It also quite normal that the Chinese set up the