Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China) — страница 2

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process,it can be divided into distinct stages.For the purpose of this study and consistent with earlier studies the process of negotiations between Western firms and their Chinese counterparts is divided into six stages: lobbying ,budget offer, technical discussions,final offer,face-to-face negotiations and implementation. LOBBYNG The negotiation process starts with early contacts with the Chinese authorities,in which customer is trying to establish whether or not the selling firm has the technology or capabilities to deliver the particular project.The Western firms are normally expected to China and present their technology and products.The firm has to conduct presentation session for the number of people and groups.In these sessions the firm has to convince the Chinese that it

has a technology they want and that it is competitive as regards technology recources and realibility.At this stage,the firms should realize following: Contents of deal:The first point to consider consists of identifying the implications of project;i.e,that the contents and objectives of the deal match of the firm.Questions such as „what can the firm gain or lose in both tangible and intangible terms?“ or „what is at stake?“ should be answered. The preparation and planning of negotiations takes a lot of time and the more information a firm can gather at this stage,the better the of success it will the later stages. The firm should gather information on both customer and the competitors,and on which other alternatives are available to the customer.And the firm has to

compare its strengths and weaknesses,for the particular project,with that of its competitiors..If the competitors are stronger,in one way or the other,the firm has to develop arguments to expose their weakness.If the firm knows that a Japanese firm is also competing for the same project and that the Japanese offer is cheaper than the firm is own,it has to develop arguments explaining why the offer more expensive.For example,in one of the projects this was actually the case and the Swedish firm was also able to convince the Chinese negotiators that althogh its price was higher,the capacity of its machines and that the technology was better in terms of quality as well as its technolgy which would facilitate future expansion.This argument was accepted by the Chinese as they do

always rely upon the best technology.If the company is able to convince that its technology is the best one and up-to-date as regards precision and future development,negotiations become easier. In larger scope, the counter trades are quite common in China.The reason for this demand is that the Chinese tend to save on the foreign exchange.Thus it is quite common for Chinese to demand that a percentage of the products to be produced by the project in question by the selling firm into its home market or into the third market.This is one of the objectives behind free zone policy.Despite the difficulty it also is considered as important .This step also helps to evaluate the effect of buy-back in monetary terms and its effects on the firm’s own production and marketing activites.It

is quite possible that the buy-back or counter trade demand is just a bluff ,so that the seller,seeking to avoid the expenses of buy-back,may offer a major cut-back in the price. Find the costumer:In China ,foreign firms have to present themselves and their technology to several authorities.One has to endlessly repeat the same things to different negotiators who suddenly,without any explanation,are replaced by another team. Quite often,however,the first team reappears after after some weeks having „forgotten“ everything ,and one has to start explaining to them again ,from the beginning.It is,thus very important for the Westerners to find out which team and who in a particular team has the authority to decide. The engineers and officials asking the most vigilant questions

often turn out to be subor- dinates with no decision-making authority.Finding the customer is therefore is quite difficult.In lobbying stage ,a firm should try to find out who is responsible for what or does one has the authority to take the decisions. Presentation of capabiliteies:In this stage,the firm has to present itself,its technology and its products.The presentation material and the presentation itself,very important. The material should be professionally prepared and presented.The Chinese are very particular about the details and the idea behind presentations is to convince them of the quality and trustworthiness of the technology and the firm.It is advisable to present all the technical specifications in English as well as local one.Most Chinese authorities do not speak