Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 7

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word they will have the sense that it is “on the tip of their tongue”: a state of affairs familiar to all of us; at other times they seem simply to “go blank”. ABOUT THE ACTIVITIES These activities are intended for children . Not all of the activities will suit all children - so be selective. Put the emphasis on listening, thinking and speaking. The activities are aimed at having the child retrieve known words - not at extending the vocabulary by teaching new words. Use a minimum of visual cues. If the word to be “retrieved” does not come easily for the child, provide an auditory cue (e.g., say the first sound or syllable of the word) or a verbal clue (e.g., “it rhymes with...). Give the child time to think, but don’t leave it so long that they are struggling to

find the word. Rather than letting them persist unsuccessfully, tell them the answer, and go on with the next few items. Then ask them the one that was difficult again. Aim for a high success-rate to encourage motivation and confidence. Adapt the tasks to suit the (developmental) age of the person. Talk about words and word-meanings. As natural opportunities arise talk about such topics as “Why is Big Bird called Big Bird?” Talk about people being named after other people. Talk about why certain names might have been chosen for pets and TV characters (Cookie Monster, Vinny the Poo, Uncle Scrooge, The Fat Controller, etc). Try to work these conversations in around topics of genuine interest to the child. PLAYING GAMES INVOLVING ANTONYMS Do this as a sentence completion (cloze)

activity (e.g., “The opposite of hot is...”) or use a question-and-answer format (e.g., “What is the opposite of hot?”), or as a confrontation naming task using pictures in which the child has to name “opposites pictures” as rapidly as they can (e.g., hot cold, wet dry, big little, fast slow, deep shallow, apart together). A Play word games involving differences For example, “What is different about a bird and a plane? They can both fly, but they are different because...” A Checking test Each of the following questions begins with a single word in capital letters. Five answer choices follow. Select the answer choice that has the meaning most opposite to the word in capitals. 1.CEDE: (A) estimate (B) fail (C) get ahead of (D) flow out of (E) retain 2. ACRID: (A)

surly (B) vapid (C) damp (D) steady (E) sweet 3. NOISOME: (A) lurid (B) healthful (C) peaceful (D) morose (E) rancorous B Answers This question type is heavily based on vocabulary. The better your vocabulary, the better you will do. But there are a few tricks you can try to use. For example, if a choice doesn’t have a clear opposite, it can’t be the correct answer. Such words as “hinterland” or “automobile” don’t have very clear opposites and would be incorrect if you were to see them as answer choices. In this case, answer choice (A) does not have a clear opposite and can be eliminated even if you don’t know what “cede” means. Also, if it’s a tough question and the keyword is really hard, remember to stay away from choices that are too good to be true. The

hard questions, which are the last few questions of each question type, often contain choices that are misleading or tricky. For instance, the word “cede” will remind many people of “succeed,” so they’ll pick (B). But the test maker will never reward students for making mistakes. (B) can’t be correct. By the same logic, you could probably eliminate (C) and (D) because “cede” will remind some people of “recede,” as in “receding tide.” That leaves you with choice (E) as the right answer. “Cede” actually means to yield or surrender, which is in fact the opposite of “retain.” B Note: You will seldom, if ever, be able to eliminate all four wrong answers to an antonym question just by using these kinds of guessing strategies. They can help you eliminate

a few choices and increase your guessing odds, but the best way to tackle antonyms is to know what kinds of words tend to show up on the GRE, make flashcards of them, and improve your vocabulary. 1.     C Cede is to give up one’s rights or possessions. The most opposite phrase in meaning is to get ahead of. 2. E Something that is ACRID is sharp and biting to taste or smell. The word most opposite in meaning is sweet. 3. B NOISOME can mean harmful or injurious. The best opposite to this is therefore healthful. A ANTONYMS QUIZ PRIVATE FACETS Handout Prefix: Score 1. What is the prefix that gives the opposite meaning of “happy”? Write the word here:.................................................... 2. What prefix makes the word “possible” into