Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 6

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methods. For example, while teaching antonyms “small” and “big” he uses pictures for presenting them. He says: In these pictures you see two balls. (The balls should differ only in size.) This is a small ball, and this is a big ball. This ball is small, and that ball is big. Now, Sasha, come up to the picture and point to the small ball (big ball). Then the teacher shows another picture with two houses in it – a white house and a yellow house, and he asks another pupil to point to the white house, to the u yellow house, and so on. The teacher may use gestures, for example, for conveying the meaning of stand up, sit down. He says: Lena, stand up. He shows with his hands what she must do. Lena stands up. Now, sit down. Again with the movement of his hands he shows the

girl what she must do. The other pupils listen to the teacher and watch what Lena is doing. Then many pupils are invited to perform the actions. If the antonyms are difficult for understanding the teacher may use the learners’ mother tongue and translate them directly or to give the analogies. For example, the teacher says: антоним слова “широкий” на русском языке будет “узкий”, а по-английски это слово звучит как “narrow”. ANTONYM QUESTIONS TEST KNOWLEDGE OF VOCABULARY The teacher must be sure of his vocabulary. . These questions obviously test vocabulary. So if yours could use some work, spend time improving it. Apart from having a great vocabulary, you can also do well on antonyms by using

test-smarts and strategy. Antonyms present you with a single word followed by five answer choices containing words or short phrases. Your task here is to find the answer choice that’s most nearly opposite in meaning to the original word. If you’re stumped about the meaning of a word, try to think of a context where you’ve heard the word before. You may not be able to recite the definition of the word covert, for instance, but you’ve probably heard the phrase “covert operation” to describe some type of cloak-and-dagger activity. Also, use your knowledge of foreign languages and word roots to help “decode” the meaning of a tough word. For instance, you may not know what benediction means, but you may be able to determine that the root bene means “good” from

knowing the more common word “benevolent.” That may be all you need to answer a question if you spot a word like “curse” among the answers. Although antonym questions test knowledge of vocabulary more directly than do any of the other verbal question types, antonym questions measure not merely the strength of your vocabulary but also your ability to reason from a given concept to its opposite. Antonyms may require only rather general knowledge of a word, or they may require that you make fine distinctions among answer choices. Antonyms are generally confined to nouns, verbs, and adjectives; answer choices may be single words or phrases. Here are some approaches that may be helpful in answering antonym questions: ·        Remember that

you are looking for the word that is the most nearly opposite to the given word; you are not looking for a synonym. Many words do not have a precise opposite, so you must look for the answer choice that expresses a concept most nearly opposite to that of the given word. ·        In some cases more than one of the answer choices may appear at first to be opposite to the given word. When this happens, try to define more precisely or in greater detail the meaning of the given word. ·        In weighing answer choices, it is often useful to make up a sentence using the given word or words. Substitute the answer choices in the phrase or sentence and see which best “fits”. The best answer will be the one that

reverses the meaning or tone of the sentence or phrase. ·        Remember that a particular word may have more than one meaning. ·       Use your knowledge of root, prefix, and suffix meanings to help you determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. WORD RETRIEVAL ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN What is a word-retrieval problem? The terms “word retrieval problem” or “word finding difficulty” imply that the person knows and understands the word, and has used it correctly before. However, they have difficulty retrieving such known words at times. Children and adults with language disorders are frequently found to have word retrieval difficulties. Often when a person (child or adult) is having difficulty retrieving a