Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 5

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that as words are polysemantic ones and the same words may have different antonyms (light bag-heavy bag; light wind-strong wind; light colors-dark colors). Generally we may divide antonyms into 2 groups: absolute and derivational. Absolute antonyms are subdivided into antonyms proper where opposition is gradual (cold (cool)-(warm) hot; large-little or small), complementaries having a binary opposition (dead-alive, single-married), conversives denoting one and the same referent from different points of view (to sell-to buy, to give to receive). Derivational antonyms may be affixal (happy-unhappy, logical-illogical) or suffixal (hopeful-hopeless). It is not always possible to replace a word by its opposite. Where it is possible you may notice that some words have several opposites

depending on the context. The opposite of “old”, for example, can be “new” or “young” depending on the situation. WORDS THAT ARE THEIR OWN OPPOSITES There are some antonyms that are called auto-antonyms - words that have two opposite meanings. For example, to "clip" may mean to cut a little piece off, or to put a little piece on. To "look over" may mean careful scrutiny or that you missed an important detail. Sometimes the antonymy may be historical: "nice" used to denote an unpleasant quality. There is a discussion of whether any generalities could be made about such pairs. Are they regularly motivated, or always a coincidence? Meanwhile, here are more auto-antonyms that got left out of last post: One auto-antonym is "moot",

which at once means "suitable for debate" and "not worth discussing". Impregnable: able to impregnated or inable to be pregnated, cope(s)mate: used to mean antagonist and now means partner or comrade, It turns out that they were having a week celebrating "fence-setters", evidently another term for what is calling auto-antonyms. BRUCE NEVIN reminds us of an intercontinental auto-antonym pair: "public school" in Britain is "private school" in the USA and vice versa. Infer: historically (and now, informally) this means "imply" as well. Rent, lease: several pointed out to me that these means both lend and borrow. In addition, Chinese operates similarly with respect to this pair, and WOLFGANG LIPP notes a similar

auto-antonymy to represent "give" and "take" in pronunciation but not in writing. Learn/teach: in "sub" - Standard English, these two meanings fuse into “learn”, as they do in standard Russian “uchit'” Here is “sensitive”: this may describe either someone with profound understanding for the feelings of others, and tolerates differences of opinion (thus "sensitivity training" for group leaders) as well as a paranoid who doesn't listen to what people are really saying, and decides to take everything as a personal insult. Hole/whole: Spelled the first way, an entire absence of matter; the second, entire presence. This reminds me of "pit" which can be either a hollow or the stone of a fruit. Which reminds me of

"seeded" oranges (insert your favourite fruit here) - oranges with seeds (as opposed to navel oranges, which have no seeds), OR oranges that have had their seeds removed. If you think you're beginning to see some patterns here, you're not alone! There were received a few theories on the ultimate essence of auto-antonymy, historical, psychological, and sociological approaches. These theories show that auto-antonymy comes about for a variety of reasons. “I've been enjoying the discussion of words that are their own antonyms. At first I thought the classic example of Latin Altus "high" or "deep" might fit in, but as I thought about it I figured it was just unmarked for point of view (say when cleaning out an empty swimming pool then "Deep"

becomes "high") so I just looked to see if it was on the list and got a comment. No. Good. But one that I have long wondered about is "risk" as in "he risked winning the game". I was shocked (as a teenager) the first time I saw "he risked losing the game" (or something like that) in print, because I previously thought (and am still inclined toward) the complement of risk being the desirable result, not the undesirable one. Whether or not this fits into this discussion, I wonder if anyone else has had a similar (or opposite) reaction or any thoughts about what's going on in the case of "risk"[2]”. HOW TO TEACH ANTONYMS Teaching antonyms requires great skill and practice. For this purpose the teacher uses various techniques and