Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 4

  • Просмотров 2871
  • Скачиваний 183
  • Размер файла 43

them, the mother tongue does not come in between, and it establishes links between a foreign word and the thing or the concept directly. The direct way of conveying the meaning of foreign words is usually used when the words denote things, objects, their qualities, sometimes gestures and movements, which can be shown to and seen by pupils, for example: a book, a table, red, big, take, stand up, etc. The teacher should connect the English word he presents with the objects, the notion it denotes directly, without the use of pupils’ mother tongue. The teacher uses various techniques for this purpose. It is possible to group them into (1) visual and (2) verbal. The first group involves the use of visual aids to convey the meaning of unfamiliar words. These may be: besides, the

teacher may use movements and gestures. E. g., the teacher uses objects. He takes a pencil and looking at it says: a pencil. This is a pencil. What is this? It is a pencil. Is it a pencil? Yes, it is. Is it a pen? No, it is not. Is it a pen or a pencil? It is a pencil. The pupils do not only grasp the meaning of the word pencil, but they observe the use of the word in familiar sentence patterns. GUIDELINES ON GIVING EFFACTIVE EXPLANATIONS 1.     Prepare You may feel perfectly clear in your own mind about what needs clarifying, and therefore think that you can improvise a clear explanation. But experience shows that teachers’ explanations are often not as clear to their pupils as they are to themselves! It is worth preparing: thinking for a while about the

words you will use, the illustrations you will provide, and so on; possibly even writing these out. 2.     Make sure you have the class’s attention One of the implications of this when giving the instructions for a group-working task is that it is advisable to give the instructions before you divide the class into groups or give out materials, not after! 3.     Present the information more than once A repetition of the necessary information may make all the difference: learners’ attention wanders occasionally, and it is important to give them more than one chance to understand what they have to do. Also, it helps to represent the information in a different mode: foe example, say it and also write it up on the board.

4.     Be brief Learners-in fact, all of us-have only a limited attention span; they cannot listen to you for along time with maximum concentration. Make your explanation as brief as you can, compatible with clarity. In some situations it may also mean using the learners’ mother tongue, as a more accessible and cost-effective alternative to the sometimes lengthy and difficult target- language explanation. 5.     Illustrate with examples You may explain, for instance, the meaning of a word, illustrating your explanation with examples of its use in various contexts, relating these as far as possible to the learners’ own lives and experiences. 6.     Get feedback When you have finished explaining, check what they have

understood. It is not just enough to ask “Do you understand?” ; learners will sometimes say they did even if they did not, out of politeness or unwillingness to lose face, or because they think they know what they have to do, but in fact completely misunderstood! It is better to ask them to do something that will show their understanding: to paraphrase in their own words, provide further illustration of their own. WHAT IS ANTONYMY Traditionally antonyms are defined as words that have opposite meaning. This definition is open to criticism. The latest linguistic investigations emphasize that antonyms are similar as words belonging to the same part of speech and the same semantic field, having the same grammatical meaning and functions, as well as similar collocations. Like

synonyms antonyms are interchangeable at least at some contexts (hot in its figurative meaning “angry, excited” is chiefly combined with the names of unpleasant emotions: hot resentment, hot scorn; its antonym cold occurs with the same words). Unlike synonyms antonyms do not differ in style, or emotional colouring (they express, as a rule, emotional characteristics of the same intensity). So antonyms are two or more words belonging to the same pat of speech, contradictory or contrary in meaning, and interchangeable at least at some contexts. Almost every word can have one or more synonyms; comparatively few have antonyms because not all notions can be opposed to one another. Antonyms are primarily found in adjectives, nouns expressing quality and state. It should be noted,