Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 3

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they serve teaching aims. The words selected may be grouped under the following two classes (M. West): 1.     Words that we talk with or form (structural) words which make up the form (structure) of the language. 2.     Words that we talk about or content words. In teaching vocabulary for practical needs both structural words and content words are of great importance. That is why they are included in the vocabulary minimum. The number of words and phraseological units the syllabus sets for a pupil to assimilate is 800 words. The selection of the vocabulary although important is not the teacher’s chief concern. It is only the “what” of teaching and is usually prescribed for him by textbooks and study - guides he uses. The teacher’s

concern is “how” to get his pupils to assimilate the vocabulary prescribed. This is a difficult problem and it is still in the process of being solved. The teacher should bear in mind that a word is considered to be learned when: 1.     it is spontaneously recognized while auding and reading; 2.     it is correctly used in speech, the right word in the right place. HOW TO TEACH VOCABULARY IN SCHOOL The process of learning a word means to the pupil: 1.     identification of concepts, that is learning what the word means; 2.     pupil’s activity for the purpose of retaining the word; 3.pupil’s activity in using this word in the process of communication in different situations. Accordingly, the

teacher’s role in this process is: 1.     to furnish the explanation, that is to present the word, to get his pupils to identify the concept correctly; 2.     to get them to recall or recognize the word by means of different exercises; 3. to stimulate pupils to use the words in speech. Teaching and learning words are carried on through methods you are familiar with; the teacher organizes learning and pupils are involved in the very process of learning, that is in the acquisition of information about a new word, its form, meaning and usage; in drill and transformation to form lexical habits; in making use of the lexical habits in hearing, speaking and reading, or in language skills. Various techniques are used to attain the goal- to fix

the words in pupils’ memory ready to be used whenever they need them[1]. Presentation of new words. Since every word has its form, meaning and usage to present a word means to introduce to pupils its forms (phonetic, graphic, structural and grammatical) and to explain its meaning and usage. The techniques of teaching pupils the punctuation and spelling of a word are as follows: 1.     pure orcoscious imitation; 2.     analogy; 3.     transcription; 4.     rules of reading. Since a word consists of sounds if heard or spoken and letters if read or written the teacher shows the pupils how to pronounce, to read and write it. However the approach may vary depending on the task set (the latter depends on

the age of pupils, their progress in the language, the type of words, etc.). For example, if the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word orally first, he instructs them to recognize it when hearing and to articulate the word as an isolated element (a book) and in a sentence pattern or sentence patterns alongside with other words. (This is a book. Give me the book. Take the book. Put the book on the table.). As far as the form concerned the pupils have but two difficulties to overcome: to lean how to pronounce the word both separately and in the speech; and to recognize it in sentence patterns pronounced by the teacher, by his classmates, or by a speaker in case the tape- recorder is used. If the teacher wants his pupils to learn the word during the same lesson not only for

hearing and speaking but for reading and writing as well, he shows them how to write and read it after they perform oral exercises and can recognize and pronounce the word. The teacher writes down the word on the blackboard (let it be spoon) and invites some pupils to read it (they already know all the letters and the rule of reading). The pupils read the word and put it down in their notebooks. In this case the pupils have two more difficulties to overcome: to learn how to write and to read the word; the letter is connected with their ability to associate letters with sounds in a proper way. There are two ways of conveying the meaning of words: direct way and translation. The direct way of presenting the words of a foreign language brings the learner into direct contact with