Особенности работы с антонимамми в школе — страница 2

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though it naturally includes methodology, has further important components such as lesson planning, classroom discipline, the provision of interest – topics. THE AIMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING The aims of foreign language teaching are threefold: practical, educational and cultural. Its practical aims are consequent on the basic function of language, which is, to serve as a means of communication. International intercourse is realized directly, through the spoken language, or indirectly, trough the written language, that is through printed, or hand-or type-written, texts. Therefore the school programmes set forth the following practical requirements: the instruction must be such as ensure that the graduates can observe on the foreign language on simple every day subjects,

using the speech material dealt with in the course, cab read and understand without a dictionary an easy text in the foreign language, and with the occasional help of a dictionary a text presenting moderate difficulties, and can express in written form simple thoughts (write a short letter). The educational aims of foreign language teaching in schools consist in inculculating in the children through instruction in the foreign language the principles of morality. The cultural aims mentioned on school programme of foreign languages imply the following tasks: widening the pupils’ general outlook, developing their powers abstract thinking, cultivating their sense of beauty and their appreciation of art. The reading of English texts acquainting the pupils with the life and culture

of the English-speaking nations, and with their manner and customs, will contribute to the mental growth of the pupils. Later the ability of reading English and American authors in the original and texts in the English language reflecting the culture of the countries where that language is spoken will likewise serve the pupils as a mean of attaining a higher general education level. Reading good authors in the foreign language will develop in the children a feeling of beauty. A widening of their philological outlook will result from the unconscious and conscious comparison of the foreign with the native language. THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING VOCABULARY To know a language means to master its structure and words. Thus, vocabulary is one of the aspects of the language to be taught at

school. The problem is what words and idioms pupils should retain. It is evident that the number of words should be limited because pupils have only 2-4 periods a week; the size of the group is not small enough to provide each pupil with practice in speaking; schools are not fully equipped with special laboratories for individual language learning. The number of words pupil should acquire in school depends wholly on the syllabus requirement. The latter are determined by the conditions and methods used. For example, experiments have proved that the use of programmed instructions for vocabulary learning allows us to increase the number of words to be learned since pupils are able to assimilate them while working independently with the program. The vocabulary, therefore, must be

carefully selected in accordance with the principle of selecting linguistic material, the conditions of teaching and learning a foreign language in school. Scientific principles of selecting vocabulary have been worked out. The words selected should be: 1.     frequently used in the language; 2.     easily combined (nice room, nice girl, nice weather); 3.     unlimited from the point of view of style (oral, written); 4.     included in the topics the syllabus sets; 5.     valuable from the point of view of word-building (use, used, useful, useless, usefully, user, usage). The first principle, word frequency, is an example of purely linguistic approach to word selection. It is

claimed to be the soundest criterion because it is completely objective. It is derived by counting the number of occurrences of words appearing in representative printed material comprising novels, essays, plays, newspapers, textbooks and magazines. Modern tendency is to apply this principles depending on the language activities to be developed. For developing reading skills pupils need “reading vocabulary”, thus various printed texts are analyzed from the point of view of word frequency. For developing speaking skills pupils need “speaking vocabulary”. In this case the material for analysis is the spoken language recorded. The occurrences of words are counted in it and the words more frequently used in speaking are selected. The other principles are of didactic value,