Nanotechnology and polymer nanocomposites

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REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL EDUCATION TASHKENT STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEX “FAN VA TARAQQIYOT” REPORT NANOTECHNOLOGY & NANOCOMPOSITES Prepared by: 2nd year post-graduate student Rahimov G.N. Tashkent City - May, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u NANOTECHNOLOGY. PAGEREF _Toc136068288 \h 3 History of use. PAGEREF _Toc136068289 \h 4 Potential benefits. PAGEREF _Toc136068290 \h 5 Potential risks. PAGEREF _Toc136068291 \h 6 Manufacturing.. PAGEREF _Toc136068292 \h 6 Key Characteristics. PAGEREF _Toc136068293 \h 7 Problems. PAGEREF _Toc136068294 \h 8 Interdisciplinarian ensemble. PAGEREF _Toc136068295 \h 9 Prominent individuals in nanotechnology. PAGEREF _Toc136068296 \h 10

NANOCOMPOSITES. PAGEREF _Toc136068297 \h 11 Introduction. PAGEREF _Toc136068298 \h 11 Polymer Nanocomposites. PAGEREF _Toc136068299 \h 12 PNC Framework. PAGEREF _Toc136068300 \h 15 Properties And Applications of PNC’S. PAGEREF _Toc136068301 \h 16 Advantages of Nanosized Additions. PAGEREF _Toc136068302 \h 16 Disadvantages of Nanosized Additions. PAGEREF _Toc136068303 \h 16 Particle Loadings. PAGEREF _Toc136068304 \h 17 Areas of Application. PAGEREF _Toc136068305 \h 17 Gas Barriers. PAGEREF _Toc136068306 \h 18 Oxygen Barriers. PAGEREF _Toc136068307 \h 18 Food Packaging.. PAGEREF _Toc136068308 \h 19 Fuel Tanks. PAGEREF _Toc136068309 \h 19 Films. PAGEREF _Toc136068310 \h 20 Environmental Protection. PAGEREF _Toc136068311 \h 20 Flammability Reduction. PAGEREF _Toc136068312 \h 21

Conclusion. PAGEREF _Toc136068313 \h 22 REFERENCES. PAGEREF _Toc136068314 \h 24 INTERNET SOURCES. PAGEREF _Toc136068315 \h 24 TRANSLATION.. PAGEREF _Toc136068316 \h 25 НАНОТЕХНОЛОГИЯ.. PAGEREF _Toc136068317 \h 26 История. PAGEREF _Toc136068318 \h 27 Открытия, сделанные в области нанотехнологий.. PAGEREF _Toc136068319 \h 28 Наночастицы.. PAGEREF _Toc136068320 \h 28 Атомно-силовая микроскопия. PAGEREF _Toc136068321 \h 29 Самоорганизация наночастиц.. PAGEREF _Toc136068322 \h 29 Проблема образования агломератов. PAGEREF _Toc136068323 \h 30 Новейшие достижения. PAGEREF _Toc136068324 \h 30 Графен.. PAGEREF

_Toc136068325 \h 30 Транзистор из нанотрубок. PAGEREF _Toc136068326 \h 31 Новый процессор Intel PAGEREF _Toc136068327 \h 31 Плазмон.. PAGEREF _Toc136068328 \h 31 Антенна-осциллятор.. PAGEREF _Toc136068329 \h 32 Экономическое развитие индустрии в сфере нанотехнологий.. PAGEREF _Toc136068330 \h 32 Известные личности в сфере нанотехнологий.. PAGEREF _Toc136068331 \h 32 Использованная литература и ссылки.. PAGEREF _Toc136068332 \h 33 Интернет источники.. PAGEREF _Toc136068333 \h 33 NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology research is generating a variety of constructs, giving researchers great

flexibility in their efforts to change the paradigm. Shown here are two such structures. On the left are highly stable nanoparticles. On the right are spherical dendrimers, which are of rigorously defined size based on the number of monomer layers. Like most of the other nanoparticles being developed, these are easily manipulated, affording researchers the opportunity to add a variety of molecules to the surfaces and interiors of the nanoparticles. Nanotechnology comprises technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1 to 100 nm (1/1,000 µm, or 1/1,000,000 mm). A possible way to interpret this size is to take the width of a hair, and imagine something ten thousand times smaller. The term has sometimes been applied to microscopic technology. Nanotechnology is any