Лингвистический фон деловой корреспонденции (Linguistic Background of Business Correspondence) — страница 5

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II Types of Business Communications 1.     The types description The primary tools for communicating information in business include e-mail messages, memos, letters, reports, phone calls, meetings, and conversations. To determine which is the best to use in a given situation, start by asking yourself the following questions: · How much information do I have to pass along? · How many people will receive the message? · How quickly does it need to reach them? · How much time do the recipients need to respond to it? · How formal should the presentation be? · Is the message confidential? · How are people likely to respond to it? E-mail Messages Because of its speed and informality, e-mail is ideal for routine communication between coworkers. For instance, an

e-mail message is usually the best means of announcing a new policy, introducing a recent hire, informing colleagues of a meeting time, and reminding an employee of an approaching deadline. E-mail messages are also useful for day-to-day or extremely timely exchanges with people outside the company. Because of their low cost, they often are preferred for communicating with overseas contacts. Memos Although e-mail messages are now used instead of memos for most intercompany communication, memos are still suitable for notes sent to people higher in the company hierarchy, especially in conservative companies. The memo is also appropriate for lengthy, formal communications to coworkers that may eventually be circulated to your supervisors or to contacts in other companies. Letters The

letter is now used primarily for formal correspondence with clients, customers, and others outside the company, particularly people you have not met. Imagine, for instance, that you need to ask for advice or information from someone you do not know personally. The person will likely give a letter more attention than an e-mail message because a letter conveys an added element of formality and courtesy. Reports A complex document of more than ten pages, especially one that will be shown to outside contacts, is best presented as a report. A routine report can be easily produced using a word processor and a laser printer. Important reports for potential clients, stockholders, or others you might want to impress usually should be professionally designed and printed, often in full

color on heavy or glossy paper. Phone Calls, Conversations, and Meetings The main advantage of a phone conversation is that it allows both parties to respond to each other immediately. If you and a coworker have several questions for each other, asking them in a single phone call is usually less time-consuming than exchanging a long series of e-mail messages. Personal matters or topics that might elicit a highly emotional response are best discussed in person. As common sense will tell you, sending an e-mail or memo reading “You’re fired!” is not the most delicate or responsible way of dealing with a difficult situation. Face-to-face meetings are usually the safest way of communicating confidential information. Meetings are also useful when a quick group decision is needed

on a particular problem or issue. Important side benefits of meetings are that they allow employees in different departments or divisions to become acquainted and can often foster a sense of shared mission among coworkers. 2. Business writing Intercultural business writing falls into the same general categories as other forms of business writing. How you handle these categories depends on the subject and purpose of your message, the relationship between you and the reader, and the customs of the person to whom the message is addressed. Letters Letters are the most common form of intercultural business correspondence. They serve the same purposes and follow the same basic organizational plans (direct and indirect) as letters you would send within your own country. Unless you are

personally fluent in the language of the intended readers, you should ordinarily write your letters in English or have them translated by a profes­sional translator. If you and the reader speak different languages, be especially concerned with achieving clarity: • Use short, precise words that say exactly what you mean. • Rely on specific terms to explain your points. Avoid abstractions al­together, or illustrate them with concrete examples. • Stay away from slang, jargon, and buzz words. Such words rarely trans­late well. Nor do idioms and figurative expressions. Abbreviations, tscfo-nyms (such as NOKAI) and CAD/CAM), and North American product names may also lead to confusion. • Construct sentences that are shorter and simpler than those you might use when writing to