Leadership in Hospitality Industry — страница 2

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order for leaders to be successful. It is important to notice that one of the aspects of the culture is change. Therefore, leaders must be able to adapt to the change in order to be more successful. Also some words have to be said about culture management as another important aspect of leadership. “Culture management deals with the ability of leaders to know and understand what the organizational culture is, modifying that culture to meet the needs of the organization as it progresses” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Therefore, it is obvious that leaders need to work within the culture to be most successful. Leadership and motivation The study of motivation is extremely important as all the above theories depend on it. This study “suggests that leadership is less a

specific set of behaviors than it is creating an environment in which people are motivated to produce and in the direction of the leader. By creating the right environment, one in which people want to be involved and feel committed to their work, leaders are able influence and direct the activities of others” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Herzberg (1964) differentiated between elements in the work place that led to employee satisfaction and elements that led to employee dissatisfaction. These elements can be thought as motivators as employees are motivated to achieve them. For example, Herzberg labeled hygiene factors as they are necessary to keep employees from dissatisfaction (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Moreover, there are some need theories that

people have needs for certain results. One of these theories is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which suggests that some needs are more basic than the others and people are motivated to satisfy them (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Certainly, work satisfy some of these needs, but some people have more advanced needs and it is essential to know whether leaders can develop an environment that will satisfy those needs. One more theory by Alderfer (1969) suggests that there are only three needs that can be. They are: existence needs, relatedness needs, and growth needs. His theory was based on the thought that people can move up and down the hierarchy and can be motivated by many needs at any one time. Let’s look now at another need theory, which called Murray’s (1938)

manifest needs theory. His view about people’s needs what that that people can experience a variety of needs, such as need for achievement or need for power and that is not necessary that everyone would have the same needs. There are also some additional motivation theories such as expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting, and reinforcement. Each of this has implications for the approach leaders can take to dealing with followers (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). The reason why motivation theories are added to leadership issue is that because of the emphasis on the followers themselves and what causes them to act, instead of focusing on the leaders. Therefore, “leadership is not only the process and activity of the person who is in leadership position, but also

encompasses the environment this leader creates and how this leader responds to the surroundings, as well as the particular skills and activities of the people being led” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). The transformational-transactional leadership “Transactional leadership stems from more traditional view of workers and organizations, and it involves the position power of the leader to use followers for task completion” (Burns, 1978). “Transformational leadership, however, searches for ways to help motivate followers by satisfying higher-order needs and more fully engaging them in the process of the work” (Bass, 1985). “Transformational leaders can initiate and cope with change, and they create something new out of old. They build strong relationships with

others while supporting and encouraging each individual’s development” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). A very interesting theory of “Super Leadership is offered by Manz and Sims (1991). They challenge the traditional paradigm of leadership as one person doing something to other people (Manz and Sims, 1991). Instead, they suggest, “the most appropriate leader is one who can lead others to lead themselves” (Manz and Sims, 1991, p.18). They suggest that leaders become great by unleashing the potential and abilities of followers, consequently having the knowledge of many people instead of relying solely on their own skills and abilities (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). To understand better what is transforming leadership lets look at it as at the