Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 8
according to the type of communication in ER compare. Both in English and in Russian sentences may be classified according to: 1) types of communication and 2) structure. According to the types of communication sentence in both languages are divided into: 1) declarative, 2) interrogative and 3) imperative. A Declarative sentence states a fact in the affirmative or negative form. There is a great difference between English and Russian negative sentences. An English sentence may have only one negation while the Russian sentence one may have more than one. (Nobody was late. - Никто не опоздал.) An Interrogative sentence asks a question. In English there are four winds of questions: general, special, alternative and disjunctive. (Do you want…?, Where do you want…?, Do you want …or…?, You want…, don’t you?). Russian interrogative sentence may be divided into 2 groups: 1) Interrogative sentence having no interrogative words, sometimes they may contain such particles as ведь, как, что, неужели, разве, ли, and etc. In such cases they differ from declarative sentence in intonation. (Инженер поехал в Москву? Его здесь нет? Разве он вам писал? Неужели он ушел?); 2) Interrogative sentences having interrogative words, such as кто, что, куда, откуда, почему (Кто пришел? Что вы читаете?). Special attention must be paid to the indirect questions the rules of sequence of tenses must be observed. Imperative sentences serve to induce a person to do something. They express a command, a request, an invitation, a wish, a demand, a call and so on. Declarative, interrogative and imperative sentences may be exclamatory when they express a strong emotion (happiness, delight, anger, etc). (What a lovely day it is! How wonderful!) (Москва как много в этом звуке…). №20. Classification sentences according to the structure in ER compare. According to the structure sentences are divided into: two-member and one-member sentences. A two-member sentence has two members: the subject and the predicate. (Pete reads. Mary writes.) A two-member sentence may be: complete and incomplete 2 member sentences. The complete has both the subject and the predicate. The incomplete is a sentence then one of the principle parts or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the sentence. Such sentences are called elliptical. (Where are you going? – To the cinema.) Elliptical sentences are usually met in colloquial speech and dialogues. A one-member sentence is a sentence, which has only one member, which is neither the subject nor the predicate. One member makes the sentence complete. One-member sentences are generally used in description and in emotional speech. If the main part of a one-member sentence is expressed by a noun and the sentence is called nominal. (Dusk-of the summer night. Зима, крестьянин торжествует). A simple sentence may be extended (has both the principle parts of the sentence and the secondary parts. E.g. Pete reads book everyday.) and unextended (has only the subject and the predicate). Sentences in both languages may be composite. Composite sentences are divided into: compound and complex. A compound is a sentence which consist of two or more clauses coordinated with each other. (The darkness was thinning, but the street was still dimly lighting. Прозрачны лес один чернеет…). A complex sentence consist of a principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. (He steps quicken as he set out from the hotel.) Subordinated clauses may be of different types: subject (Where I am going is unknown), object, predicative (with link-verb), attributive, adverbial.