Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 7

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day’s holiday, an hour’s absence). Government is used in verbal combinations where the object is expressed by a personal pronoun (Believe me, help him). Prepositional government is more frequently used in MoE (to rely on him, to depend upon him). The verb governments through the preposition. In MoR governing words may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by a noun (крыло птицы); 2) by an adjective (склонный к шуткам); 3) by a numeral (двадцать деревьев); 4) by a pronoun (кто-то из братьев); 5) by an Infinitive (поливать улицу); 6) by an adverb (жарко от солнца). A noun or a noun-equivalent usually expresses governed words (извлекать полезное, уважение к

старшим). In accordance with the part of speech the governing word belongs to, government in MoR is subdivided into: substantial (осмотр здания – gen. case), adjectival (интересный для зрителя – gen. case with a prep.), adverbial (делать весело, ему приятно), verbal (осматривать здание – accusative case, доверить врагу – dative case). №17. Adjoining as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare. Adjoining is a variety of syntactical connection when the dependence of one word upon another is expressed not morphologically but semantically (My room-my rooms, a small room-small rooms). In MoR the mostly spread adjoining is when an adverb is subordinated.

Pivotal words may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1)       by a verb (твердо усвоен, хорошо написан), 2)       by a stative (вполне возможно), 3)       by an adjective (почти черный), 4)       by an adverb (очень слабо), 5)       by a noun (езда шагом). The Infinitive as well may be subordinated (пошел заниматься, жаль расставаться). Sometimes деепричастие may be subordinated (разговаривая смотрел на собеседника). №18. The sentence. Its features in ER compare. 3 main ways of

word connection in the sentence. Syntax is closely connected with morphology, but it is an independent part of grammar. It studies word-combinations and sentences. The main features of a sentence: 1) the sentence expresses a complete thought while w-c does not. (Cf: The table is brown. A brown table.); 2) the sentence has a definite intonation and that is why may consist only of one word, while the w-c consists of two or more words; 3) the sentence has a verb in a finite form (Cf: the weather is nice, the nice weather); 4) the sentence expresses predication that is the relation between what is said to reality. The action may be real, unreal, possible, probable and so on. The action in the sentence may be referred to Present, Past or Future. The w-c in a sentence may be connected

in 3 ways: - the lexical way, the grammatical and the phonetical way. The lexical way is the connection of words according to their lexical meaning (мальчик читать книга – boy read book). Of course, the lexical way is not enough. The given sentences are understandable but they are not expressed grammatically. We don’t know the time of an action; we don’t know the type of the sentence. So, words in a sentence must be connected grammatically. There are 3 main grammatical ways of word connection in a sentence: 1) the forms of words, 2) the form-words and 3) the word order. 1.The forms of words are not typical of the English language, because the morphological system of it is poor. This way is typical of the Russian language. (I/You/We(S/he) read(s) a book, Я

читаю, ты читаешь…). 2. The form-words is of a great importance in MoE. It is also wider spread in MoR. Form-words in ER are subdivided into: 1) the determinative form-words (we refer: in English – articles and particles while in Russian – only particles) and 2) connectives (both in ER we refer prepositions and conjunctions). 3. The word-order in MoE is of a great importance. In MoR the word-order in the sentence is rather free. While in English the first place is usually occupied by the subject, the second place is occupied by the Predicate, the third place – by the object, the fourth place – by the adverbial modifier. (Ann sees John - Аня видит Джона. John sees Ann (not equal) Джона видит Аня). №19. Classification sentences