Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 6

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denote the circumstances under which an action takes place (here, there, late, здесь, теперь, там, тогда). While the qualitative adverbs do not express any external circumstances. They express the characteristics of an action or a quality. (slowly, fluently, badly). Qualitative adverbs are used in the function of an adverbial modifier of manner. (He runs quickly.) The circumstantial adverbs perform the function of adverbial modifiers but manner. (He was there. He will come tomorrow.) The circumstantial adverbs are always connected with the verb, they are unchangeable. The qualitative adverbs may be connected with verb, adj, adverb. №14. Word-combination in E&R. Their definition and classification. The word-combination both in ER is characterized by the

following features. Practically the word-combination consist of two or more notional words (a brown table). There is an opinion that a word-combination may include two or more any words (a table, a book). Some grammarians thinks that it is a word-combination, while the sentence may be expressed by one word only, because the sentence possesses a complete intonation. The word-combination has practically no intonation. Therefore the word-combination is not a unit of communication. The word-combination has no predication. If we say “a black table” we are not quite sure what tense is meant here. Therefore the w-c has no predicative relations, such as the relation of person, tense, modality. While the main feature of the sentence is that expresses a predication. The w-c are usually

build on the basis of one notional word. This notional word is usually called the pivotal word of the main word. The w-c are usually classified in accordance with their pivotal words. We may have such w-c as: 1) Substantial w-c (a red rose, красная роза); 2) adjectival; 3) verbal (to give lessons, to read books); 4) adverbial (quite near, совсем близко). W-cs both in ER may be classified into: - free syntactical comb-s, phraseological units. Free syntactical combinations are such combinations the part of which may be freely replaced (a large table – a large brown table). A phraseological unit is understood as a whole and its parts are not freely replaced (to show the white feather-струсить, танцевать от печки-to begin from the very

beginning). A w-c may also classified according to their relations between the words in them. When we may have: attributive combinations (a young man, a brown table), objective (to read a book), adverbial (coming tomorrow, читал стоя/сидя). W-c may be simple and complex. Simplex w-c usually consist of 2 notional words (a red rose, a good student). Complex w-c consist usually of more than 2 words (to travel to a big city, a big red rose). W-c may be subordinative (include pivotal words, or the pivotive words) and coordinative w-c (all the element or words of they are equal – ножи и вилка, a boy and a girl). №15. Agreement as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare. Agreement is not often found in MoE, nut it is widely used in

MoR. Agreement is used to adjust the form of modified word to the form of the pivotive word. (this room-these rooms, that room-those rooms, I have a book-he has a book). Agreement in MoR is found in such grammatical categories as gender, number, case, and person: 1) Full forms of adjectives in MoR agree with corresponding nouns in gender, number and case (широкий залив, широкая река, широкое озеро – gender; широкий залив – широкого залива – case; широкий залив – широкие заливы – number). In plural no agreement in gender is observed (широкие заливы – no gender). 2) Short forms of adjective do not agree in case. In singular they agree in gender, number (город

красив, площадь красива – gender; город красив – города красивы – number). In Plural they agree only in number. Cardinal-numerals in case (пяти домов, пятью домами). Verbs in Future and Present Tenses agree in number and person (ученик пишет, ученики пишут). №16. Government as a mode of syntactical connection in word-combination in ER compare. Government is a variety of syntactical connection in accordance with which the use of the oblique case is dependent upon the grammatical meaning of the pivotal word. Government found both in ER. In English government is used to join together 2 nouns: the noun-attribute usually is used in the Possessive Case. (A boy’s book – boys’ books, A