Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 5

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practically one grammatical meaning, while in Russian the adj-e is polysemantic (хороший has such gram-l m-gs as masculine gender, singular number, nominative case, the positive degree). But the synthetic comparative as красивее, лучшее и сильнее is monosemantic in Russian as well. In Russian most qualitative adjectives have short forms, which are usually used as predicative. The combinability of adjectives is also different in the 2 lang-s. In English we usually speak about lexical and lexical-grammatical combinability. In Russian the grammatical combinability is of great importance (широкое окно, коричневый стол). The English adjective may have its right-hand connection with the prop-word “one” (a good one, a nice one).

There are some adj-ves in Russian the syntactical function of which changes the meaning (present, ill, glad; the present situation (not equal) the student is present). Russian adjectives are characterized by the so-called suffixes of subjective appraisal (длинненький, длиннющий, длинноватый). In both languages the adj is divided into two groups: qualitative, relative. The number of relative adj-s is much greater in Russian. Russian relative adj-s are usually rendered into English by a noun in the common case (настольная лампа – a table lamp). Among the relative adj-s in the Russian lan-ge. There is a group of possessive adj-s (Ольгин, мамин, отцов). №12. Parts of speech in E&R compare. Both in RE the vocabulary

is classified into parts of speech. The words are classified into parts of speech according to three main principals: lexical, morphological and syntactical. ER belong to the Indo-European family of the languages. They have much in common. There are many words which both in languages having the same root morpheme: sister, brother, mother, etc. Practically we find the same parts of speech in both languages. But there is not article in Russian. Words having one and the same meaning may belong to different parts of speech. (тишина, тихий, тихо; to sleep, asleep, sleepy). This shows that the lexical meaning only is not enough to classify the vocabulary into parts of speech. The Russian language is syntactical, while the English is analytical. In Russian the

morphological principle is a great importance when we classify words into parts of speech. The English morphology is poor and also the syntactical principle and the combinability of words are of great importance. (a black stone, a stone wall). The parts of speech in both languages are divided into: notional words and form-words order and empty words. Such parts of speech as the noun, the verb, the adjective, the pronoun, and the stative are notional parts of speech. But the conjunction, the preposition, the particle, the article are formal parts of speech. So in both languages there are some words, which forward from one into another parts of speech. №13. The adverb as a part of speech in E&R compare. The adverb is a notional part of speech both in ER. Therefore it is

characterized lexically, morphologically and syntactically. The lexical meaning. The adverb in both languages denotes some circumstances under which an action takes place. It may also denote some characteristics of an action or of a quality. (He has come late. Он пришел поздно. He is here. Он здесь). These adverbs express some circumstances under which an action takes place. The syntactical functions of the adverb are also the same both in ER. It performs the syntactical function that of an adverbial modifier. (He is here. Он здесь. – the adverbial modifier of place). The adverb in the 2 languages may perform the syntactical functions of different adv. Modifiers such as time, place, manner, cause, purpose and so on. (He will come tomorrow. He speaks

fluently.). As to the syntactical relations of the adverb to words of other classes, it is characterized by being connected with the verb, adjective and adverb. (He runs quickly. – verb; He is very clever. – adj; He acts very cleverly. - adverb). The adverb may be also connected with the noun, but this is not a characteristic feature of the adverb. (My friend lives in the room opposite. - noun). As to the morphological characteristics a part of adverbs in both languages has the degrees of comparison. (slowly-more slowly-the most slowly). All the adverbs in both languages are divided into 2 large groups. They are: Circumstantial, Qualitative. They are different both in their lexical meaning, grammatical char-s and word-formation. Circumstantial adverbs are those adverbs, which