Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 4

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attributive, and adverbial modifier. Prepositions are of great importance in English. The of-phrase is practically used with all the nouns. The difference between the possessive case and the of-phrase is rather stylistic. The category of gender in the two languages is different. In Russian it is morphological while in English it is lexical. Practically we have only one suffix in English to express this category morphologically – “-ess”. In both languages nouns are divided into countable and uncountable. Uncountable include singularia tantum and pluralia tantum. In Russian there is nearly always the correlation between the form and between the combinability (часы стали, комитет заседает, семья ждет, сани едут). In English it is not

so. (The cables are, physics is, the family is/are). The number of Russian nouns having no case-forms is not large. Usually they are borrowings. (пальто, такси, кенгуру, депо). In both languages the functions of different cases are different. In Russian only a nominative case can be the subject. Only an accusative case may be a direct object, only a nominative or an instrumental case is used as a predicative. In English the possessive case is used practically as an attribute. №10. The category of state in E&R compare. In both languages exist such as asleep, awake, alike, хорошо, душно. This words expressed different states. By many Russian grammarians this words were discussed and called different (adverbs, adjectives, predicative adverbs or

adjectives). Sherba was the first to say that these words form an independent part of speech and it was called the category of state. In English such words as asleep, awake. Ilyish called them stative, Хаймович called them add-link, and some others called them the words of the category of state or predicative. Usually such words are referred to these class: 1) words beginning with “a-“ - which is a prefix (alive, asleep, etc), 2) words beginning with “a-“ - which is not a prefix (afraid, awake, aloof, etc), 3) words consisting of one root which developed from adjectives or adverbs and now they denote a state (ill, glad, sorry, well, etc). The question is rather complicated because different grammarians refer different words of this class. Жигайло,

Иванова, Йофик refer to this class only the words beginning with “a-“. There is an opinion that this class is very rich in words expressing a state. (Лейкина refers to this class such words as in, up, down, on, etc. e.g. what’s up?). Different opinion exist: 1) the words of the category of state form an independent part of speech. It may be characterized: semantically, morphologically and semantically. Professor Ilyish said that semantically they denote a state, morphologically they are characterized by the element “a-“, and syntactically they are used as a predicative. (He is asleep – comp.nom.pred.) 2) The words of the type “asleep” do not from an independent part of speech. There are predicative adjectives. This point of view was put forward

by professor Бархударов. 3) The words of the type “alive” do not form a grammatical category, they form a lexically category. This is because a state may be expressed by different parts of speech: 1) by noun (it’s time to have dinner), 2) by adj. (he is happy or unhappy) and 3) by participle II (The house is destroyed). This point of view was put forward by professor Вилюман. №11. The adjective as a part of speech in E&R compare. Both in English and in Russian the adjective has the same meanings. It expresses the quality or the characteristics of an action. The adj. is characterized in the two languages by the same syntactical functions. They are attribute and the predicative. (An interesting book. A book is interesting). Morphologically the adj-e in

ER is different. The Russian adj-e is more changeable. It’s characterized by such morphological categories as the category of gender, number, case and the category of the degrees of comparison. (интересная книга – интересные книги, яркое солнце, интересный собеседник). The adj-e has only one grammatical category – the category of the degrees of comparison. (red-redder-the reddest, good-better-the best). There are 3 degrees of comparison of adj-s. In both languages the positive degree, the comparative and the superlative. The positive degree in English is not marked (red, beautiful) while in Russian it is marked (красивый, красивая, красивое). In English adj-s are monosemantic, they have