Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 3

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use modal verbs: конечно, обязательно, точно, etc. (Of course he will be at home now). The relation of an action may be expressed lexically and grammatically at the same time. Then we use modal verbs (He can do it. He may do it.). It may be phonetically with the help of intonation. The category of mood is one of the most complicated categories especially in English. Usually we speak about three moods in Russian. (Изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное). The number of moods in MoE is greater. The best classification of moods was introduced by Смирнитский. He finds six moods, which must be divided into direct (Indicative, imperative) and indirect (Subjunctive I, II, suppositional and conditional)

moods. №8. The Subjunctive mood in English and in Russian compare. In both languages the Subjunctive mood expresses a probable, possible, imaginary or unreal action. (If I had time I should visit you – если бы у меня было время, я бы посетил тебя.) There are many opinions exists concerning the number of moods both in ER. Smirnitsky finds 4 subjunctive moods in MoE: Subjunctive I, II, conditional and suppositional. There is an opinion that in MoR there are 5 subjunctive moods such as the conditional, the optative, the suppositional, the conditional optative and the subjunctive moods. But practically we have only 4 moods. The suppositional and subjunctive I are grammatical synonyms. They express probable, possible, imaginary actions. But there

are quite different in their forms. Subjunctive I is a syntactical form of the mood. It has only one form. Which coincides with infinitive without “to”. (I write, he write, she write). The suppositional mood is an analytical form. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary “should +Infinitive”. (I should write, He should write). The SI is used both in simple and in complex sentences. (It is necessary that all the students be present at the classroom). The suppositional mood is used only in complex sentences (It is necessary that all the students should be present.). SI is archaic form and it is often replaced by the suppositional mood. The SII and the conditional mood are also grammatical synonyms. They express unreal actions or non-fact actions. SII is considered to

be a syntactical mood. It has two forms. If the action is referred to the present or to the future it’s form coincides with the past indefinite indicative (wrote, read). The verb “to be” is used to be “were”. If the actions refer to the past the form of SII coincides with the Past Perfect Indicative. (If I knew it. If I had know it.) It is usually used in subordinate clauses of the complex sentence. The conditional mood is an analytical. It is formed with the help of a mood auxiliary (“Should or Would”). (I should read, You would read). The conditional mood is usually used in principle clauses of complex sentences. (If I were you I should do it. – SII, conditional mood). (Referring to the past – If I had been you I should have done it). The subjunctive mood in

MoR is formed from the past tense form adding the particle “бы”. It possesses the category of gender and number. №9. The noun as a part of speech in E&R compare. The meaning of the noun in both languages is the same. It expresses “thingness”. Syntactically the noun both in ER is used in the same functions: subject, object and predicative. (A boy is going to school. My father is an engineer. Look at the picture on the wall.) A peculiarity of Russian is the abundance of suffixes of subjective appraisal (братец, билетик, доченька). In English there is a suffix “-let” (booklet, leaflet). In both languages we find the grammatical category of number and case. But they are different. In Russian we have practically 6 cases while in English we find

only 2 cases (the common and the possessive). The common case in English isn’t marked while the nominative case in Russian is marked. (Cf: a table –стол, a window – окно). The formation of the plural number is standard in English and non-standard in Russian. Number and case are sometimes expressed by separate morphemes in English (oxen-oxen’s). The case-morpheme – “’s” may be used sometimes not with a noun (The man I saw yesterday’s son). Though the meaning of case in both languages is the relation of nouns to other nouns in the sentence. The possessive case is used only with nouns (Peter’s book - книга Пети). The common case in English is very widely used. It may function as any part of the sentence – subject, object, predicative,