Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы) — страница 2

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tenses are divided into 4 large groups. They are: Indefinite, Continues, Perfect, Perfect Continues. The specific feature of the English language is that all the tenses are analytical but the Present and the Past Indefinite. All tenses in English are tense-aspect forms, but the Indefinite tenses. We say that these tenses are tense-aspect forms because they express both the time of an action and the character of an action (He is reading a book now). The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and

analytical. №4. The category of aspect in English and in Russian compare. Both in ER is characterized by the category of aspect. But this category of two languages is quite different. In English the category of aspect shows the character of an action. That is whether the action is shown as a fact or it shown in its progress in its developments (Pete reads books everyday). Practically we have two aspects in English: the continues and the non-continues common aspects. In Russian the c.o.a. expresses the completeness or incompleteness of an action. The perfective aspect. Subject is usually form in MoR with the help of prefixes (внести, вынести, занести…). Different verbs combine with the different number of prefixes. Usually the verb with the suffix –ну-

express instantanian action. In English we used only one word (толкать, толкнуть – to push). There are some modern verb in Russian with the suffix –ну- which do not express instantanians actions. (вянуть, вязнуть, гаснуть, сохнуть) It depends upon the lexical meaning. The imperfective aspect. The words of imperfective aspect are formed by means of such suffixes as –ыва-, -ива-, -ва-, -а-, -я-. (переписать – переписывать, забить – забивать). In English the repetition of an action is usually expressed with the help of the prefix “re-“ (to write-to rewrite). In MoR there are exist a group of words of motions which have two forms of the imperfective aspect. The category of aspect

in MoR is very closely connected with the lexical meaning of the word. №5. The category of voice in English and in Russian compare. There are different points of view concerning the number of voices both in ER. There is an opinion that there are 3 voices in MoR: active, middle reflexive and passive. Grammatically we have only 2 voices in English; active and passive. (Boy reads the book. The book is read by the boy.) In the active voice the subject is the doer of an action while in the passive voice the subject is not the doer of an action. There are some group of verbs in MoR which are not used in the passive voice: 1) all the intransitive verbs without the suffix «–ся» (идти, ехать, ходить), 2) reflexive verbs built upon intransitive ones

(споткнуться, улыбнуться), 3) some verbs with the suffix «–ся» having a special meaning (слушать-слушаться, нести-нестись). The specific feature of the English language is that the Passive voice may be formed the verbs connected with the indirect object. (She gave me a book. I was given a book by her. – adv.modifier.) Let us compare the number of active-passive oppositions in both languages. We see that Russian have two: пишет - пишется. In English we have 10 active-passive opposition. The forms of the Future Continues, Present Perfect Continues, Past Perfect Continues, Future Perfect Continues are not used in the Passive Voice. The category of voice is closely connected with the text (братья

переписываются, бумаги переписываются секретарем). The instrumental case in Russian corresponds to the by-phrase in English. When the Past Particle expresses a state – Active voice, when it expresses the action – Passive voice. The action is emphasized by the by-phrase, the adv.modifier and sometimes by the form itself. The continues perfect forms usually emphasize an action (the door has been shut – s.v.pr.). №7. The category of mood in English and in Russian compare. We find 3 moods both in ER. The category of mood expresses the relation of an action to reality. (We were at home at 6 o’clock – reality, If we were at home at 6 o’clock – unreality). The relation of an action to reality may be expressed lexically. Then we