Курс лингвистики (Экзаменационные вопросы)

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№1. Morphological and genealogical classifications of languages. Lang-e may be classified in different ways: the morphologically and genealogically. When we classified the language morphologically we mean the structure of the word of a living language. When we classified the language genealogically we mean the origin of the language. According to the M.C. the language are divided into languages having not affixes and the lang-s with affixes. The words of the lang-e, which has not affixes, are unchangeable (such as где, туда, здесь, там, in, at, for, since, etc). Word order is of a great important in lang-s with has no affixes. Languages with affixes are classified into agglutinative and inflected. Both of them are characterized by affixes but the connection

between the root or the steam of the word and the suffixes is quite different. In inflected languages the suffix is characterized by two or more meanings. (домам). To the inflected languages we refer the language of Indo-European family (such as Russian, German, English, Latin, etc). In agglutinative languages the suffix is characterized only by one meaning (in Georgian lang., in English – some words like ox-oxen’s-бык). Agglutinative languages are divided into: Altanian, Agro-Finish, Iberian-Caucasian. According to the G.C. all the lang-s of the world are classified into large families of lang-s. They are: Indo-European, Semitic and Hermitic, Altaic, Iberian-Caucasian, Chinese-Tibet, Indonesian. №2. The Verb in English and in Russian compare. The verb is a notional

part of speech. Both in E&R the verb denote an action (to write - писать), a process (to work) and a state (to sit, stand). Syntactically the verb functions as a simple verbal predicate. (Она пишет письма каждый день. She writes letters every day.) Morphologically the verb in Russian is characterized by the following categories: tense, aspect, mood, person, number, gender. The English forms has the same categories but they has not the category of gender but they has a time of relations. The verbs may be classified into: subjective and objective. Subjective verbs are connected with their subject. In English practically all the verbs are subjective. In Russian – not all. They may be used without their subjects (Темнеет). Objective verbs

are closely connected with two nouns or noun equivalents. Objective verbs which are connected with their objects directly are transitive verbs, all others – intransitive. As to their morphemes we find a greater variety and abundance of stem-building affixes in Russian (в-, вз-, воз-, пери-, за-, из-, на-, над-, низ-, -ова-, -ствова-). In English the number of v-building suffixes is limited (-ify, -ate, -en, etc). Though the number of prefixes in English is greater (mis-, un-, be-, out-, etc). The most productive way of forming verbs in MoE is conversion. It is not characteristic in Russian (because of the different structures). We find difference in the system of the non-finite forms, we find no gerund in Russian. The Infinitive in English is

characterized by such categories as voice, aspect, correlation. The tense-system of the verb is different in the two languages. In English all the tenses but the Past Indefinite and Present Indefinite are analytical. In English all the tenses are tense-aspect forms but the indefinite group. In Russian practically the tenses are synthetically. Only the Future tense may be both synthetically and analytical. №3. The category of tense in English and in Russian compare. There are 3 tenses in both lang-s: Past, Present and Future. But there is difference in the number of grammatical tenses. This is because the two lang-s are different in their morphological structure. The Russian lang. has a rich morphology while the morphology of the English us poor. In English all grammatical