Keys to Management

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1. The manager’s role Our society is made up of all kinds of organizations, such as companies, government departments, unions, hospitals, schools, libraries, and the like. They are essential to our existence, helping to create our standards of living and our quality of life. In all this organizations there are people carrying out the work of manager. They have a responsibility to use the resources of their org. effectively and economically to achieve its objectives. A French industrialist, Henry Fayol, wrote in 1960 a classic definition of the manager’s role. He said that to manage is to ‘forecast and plan, to organize, to command, co coordinate and to control’. This definition is still accepted by many people today, although some writers on management have modified

Fayol’s description. Instead of talking about ‘command’, they say a manager must motivate or direct and lead other workers. In most companies the activities of manager depend on the level at which he is working. Top manager, such as chairmen and directors, will be more involved in long range planning, policymaking, and the relations of the company with the outside world. They will be making decisions on the future of the company, the sort of product lines it should develop, how it should face up to the competition, whether it should diversify. On the other hand middle management is generally making the day-to-day decisions, which help an organization to run efficiently and smoothly. They must respond to the pressures of the job, which may mean dealing with an unhappy

customer, meeting an urgent order, chasing up suppliers or sorting up a technical problem. They spend a great deal of time communication, coordinating and making decisions affecting the daily operations of their organization. An interesting modern view on managers is supplied by an American writer, Mr. Peter Drucker. In his opinion, the managers perform 5 basic operations. Firstly, managers set objectives. They decide what they should be and how the organization can achieve them. Secondly, managers organize. They must decide how the recourses of the company are to be used, how the work is to be classified and divided. The third task is to motivate and communicate effectively. Managers must be able to get people work as a team and to be as productive as possible. The forth

activity is measurement. Having set targets and standards, managers have to measure the performance of the organization, and of its staff. Finally, Mr. Peter Drucker says that managers develop people, including themselves. They help to make people more productive, and grow as human beings. Successful managers are the people, who command the respect of workers and who set high standards. Good managers must bring character to the job. They are people of integrity, who will look for that quality in others. 2. Frederick W.Taylor, scientific management No one has had more influence on managers in 20s century than Frederick Taylor, an American engineer. He said a pattern for industrial work, which many others had followed, and although his approach to management has been criticized,

his ideas are still of practical importance. T. founded the school of scientific management just before the First World War. He argued that work should be studied and analyzed systematically. The operations required to perfume a particular job could be identified then arranged in a logical sequence. After this was done, workers productivity would increase, and so would his/her wages. The new method was scientific. The way of doing a job would no longer be determined by guesswork. Instead, management would work out scientifically the method for producing the best results. When T. started work in the end of 19s century, the industrial revolution was in full swing. Factories were being set up all over the USA. There was a heavy investment in plant and machinery, and labour was