Formation of group behaviour in the organisations — страница 4

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structure. It depends on type of group, its size and structure, mutual relations and norms in it, the status and a role of each member of group. The size and group structure. One of the important factors who in many respects defines efficiency of group, its size is. Practice shows that the groups consisting of 5-9 persons appear the most productive. Such number allows to consider, first, at decision-making different opinions, secondly, creates a transparency at which the contribution of everyone is well visible and, thirdly, provides favorable conditions for interaction and unity. Efficiency of group depends also on its structure. Researches have confirmed such law: than more than the general signs at group (on age, qualification, sights etc.) As that its members more fruitfully

work, faster they find that correct decisions of questions which before them arise. At the same time group heterogeneity on what or to a sign under certain conditions can be a source of conflicts. The status. It is accepted to understand a place of the person as the status in a society or group. Distinguish are formal also the informal status. Formal it is defined by a post, an official rank. For example, the professor or the winner of competition? The best by a trade?; the informal? Personal qualities of the person and a recognition people of these qualities. If the established group status corresponds to expectations of the person, the person recognises group norms and behaves according to them if is not present, between the person and group there is a conflict role a role. It

is a way or model of behaviour of the person in this or that situation. Each member of group carries out certain roles which depend on its status. Complexity of management of organizational behaviour here consists that in a life people simultaneously carry out some roles. The person at the same time can be the head subordinated, a companion, the parent etc. In each role from it expect certain behaviour. When the member of group does not justify group expectations, there is a role conflict. There are different role conflicts: 1. The conflict the person - a role. It arises when the role requirement breaks the basic values of the individual or its requirement. For example, the person can leave group if its representations about morals or justice disperse from group opinion. 2. The

conflict in a role. Such conflict appears when the person appears as though between the devil and the deep sea. On the one hand, for example, the head of group on office hierarchy belongs to the heads and should behave according to position; with another, it the member of group also wishes to keep with it friendly relations. 3. The conflict between roles. In its basis contradictions between expectations from those roles which are carried out by the person lie. In particular, the rallied group which purposes do not coincide with the purposes of the formal organisation, can become the reason of the interrole conflict for its members. Researches show what to avoid role conflicts difficultly. However it is possible to minimise their negative influence on new groups. For this purpose

it is necessary to know the reasons of occurrence of contradictions and in due time to interfere with process of their development. Norms. It is accepted to understand the conventional standards which have developed in group as a result of long interaction of its members as group norms. Unlike role expectations which are turned to separate people, norms are turned at once to all members of group. Both formal, and informal groups can have various hand-written or unwritten norms. One of them are formalized in various written documents. Others officially do not appear, nevertheless become known to all members of group. And though they have informal character, their influence on mutual relations in group and efficiency of its work often appears more strongly written norms. The basic

norms can be reduced to several types: What define norms of activity, its productivity, quality, terms of performance of tasks etc. Concern the first type. To the second the norms connected with distribution of resources. They regulate an order of assignment for wages, encouragements, sequence of granting of privileges and privileges etc. To the third the norms, concerning informal social agreements. The rules regulating display of professional or group solidarity, admissible limits of sanctions to separate members of group, norm of group loyalty etc. Here enter. The fourth type is formed by organizational norms. It can be requirements to clothes of the workers, shown for maintenance of certain image of firm, or standards at negotiating etc. Existence of norms is dictated by a