Formation of group behaviour in the organisations — страница 3

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realise that its suppression will cause organisation easing. 2. To listen to opinions of members and leaders of informal groups, that the nobility their mood. 3. Before accepting any actions, to count their possible consequences for informal group. 4. For easing of resistance to changes in the organisation from outside informal group to involve its members in acceptance of administrative decisions. 5. In due time to give out to workers the exact information, interfering with that to distribution of hearings. Chapter 3. Formation of group and its basic characteristics In the literature there are some models of formation of group, and in each of them stages of its life cycle are called differently. For example, James L.Gibson, John Ivantsevich and James H. Donneli - younger

consider that each group passes in the development through stages: a mutual recognition, dialogue and decision-making, motivation and efficiency, the control and the organisation. According to L. V. Kartashovoj, Т. V. Nikonovoj and Т. O. Solomanidinoj, such stages five: an initial stage of formation, a stage of the intragroup conflict, maintenance of unity of group, a stage of the highest working capacity and a final stage (for time groups). Е. G. Moll, as well as the American scientists, allocates also 4 stages: group formation, a stage a storm and a storm, an execution stage. A lack of all these definitions is their some randomness, absence of methodological criterion. At the heart of author's model the concept based on processes which define features of development of each

group lies. These processes, in the conventional opinion of psychologists, are that: adaptation, identification, integration and communications. Adaptation characterises the initial stage of formation of group when its members learn and accept each other, form problems, develop norms of behaviour when start to be shown structure, hierarchy, the status, roles, leadership. Identification is connected with formation of feeling of an accessory of the individual to group. This process proceeds at three levels: the emotional as ability to empathize. How ability to become on the point of view of other person or all group and behavioural? As aspiration to obey to developing group norms. Integration marks itself a stage when the race for power in group is already finished, group norms,

roles of everyone that is when association of individuals has turned to individual collective are finalised. Integration leads to transformation of collective into the self-regulated social organism well adapted for in common-individual activity. For the given stage of development of group following signs are characteristic: the purposes are accurately designated; compatibility of individuals in group is reached; the leader of group has proved the right to leadership in practice; the group successfully carries out the problems put before it; the size of group allows to know opinion of its each member and to estimate it. People feel the accessory to group, hang together, overcoming in common difficulties and solving group problems. Conflicts and the stresses shown at the beginning

it is especially frequent and painful, arise all less often and are resolved in the most sparing ways with participation of all group. An indicator of efficiency of integration is degree of unity of group. The highest unity is inherent in group at a step of its maturity. Group disintegration begins with dissociation display between its members. Thus, if to follow logic of development of group and those processes which accompany it, it is possible to allocate following stages: 1. Adaptation. 2. Identification. 3. Integration. 4. Disintegration. Thus it is necessary to notice that these stages are not the forms of evolution of group isolated from each other. They only specify in dominating tendencies which define its this or that life cycle. In a life all is more difficult. Happens

that processes and adaptations, both identifications, and integration occur simultaneously. And happens and so that, having reached integration level, the group passes to lower step because in it there was a new leader or its problems have changed. As to communications process it accompanies group development at all its stages. Communications are means with which help members of group co-operate, communicate, build the relations, form group characteristics, operate the behaviour. Therefore about it we will talk separately. Generalising told, it is possible to present schematically model of formation and group development. According to this model we will consider the basic characteristics of group and potential end results of its activity. Group structure. Each group has the