Formation of group behaviour in the organisations — страница 2

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itself to them and to receive their estimation itself, respect and a recognition. The accessory to group means also potential possibility for the individual to have reliable protection. Members of one group will intercede the friend for the friend and at a meeting with hooligans in the street, and at conversation with the heads more likely, defending group interests. At last, the accessory to group, for example, to any club or a trade union provides to the person certain position in a society, gives it the power and possibilities for achievement of specific goals. Thus, people unite in groups to satisfy the requirements in Dialogue. Power strengthening Reception of the certain public status achievement of social, economic and other purposes. Chapter 2. Types of groups There are

different criteria on which classify groups. For example, depending on character of joint activity they can be industrial, educational, family, etc.; depending on duration and existence constant or time etc. However the majority of scientists in a basis of typology of groups take the most general criterion a principle of their creation. One groups are created directive at will of a management of the organisation for performance of its purposes, others voluntary workers for satisfaction of the various requirements. The first name formal, the second the informal. Formal groups happen two types: administrative and operative. The groups provided by organizational structure concern the administrative: departments, sites etc. the operative include workers and employees who together

carry out any task or the project. The command concerns such type, for example. Informal groups also share on two kinds: Groups on interests and groups on the basis of friendship. As an example of the first type associations of people on the basis of aspiration to self-development, increase of the professional skill or collectors can serve. A source of formation of groups of the second type are liking to each other and similarity of personal values and installations. Formal and informal groups have much in common. First, both those, and others pass similar stages of development. They have hierarchies, leaders, roles, norms (rule), the status, the size. Thirdly, group dynamics of those and others are peculiar characteristics are identical: unity and conflicts. At the same time

between them exists basic distinctions. As most important of them John V. Njustrom and Kate Devis consider the following. Distinctions of formal and informal groups. The basis for comparison Informal group Formal group: General mutual relations Informal Official, Basic concepts the Power and a policy of the Right and a duty, Basic attention to the Person of the Post, Source of the power Proceeds from group, Management to behaviour of Norm of the Rule, Source of management of the Sanction Compensation and the penalty Is delegated by a management. Apparently from the table, in informal groups the dominant role is played by members of groups and their mutual relation, in formal - official roles in terms of the official rights and duties of individuals. The informal power, thus,

addresses to the person as to the person and, hence, has personal character; the formal as to the official, it is established officially. This the leader of informal group receives the power from fellow workers, formal from an organisation management. The behaviour in informal group is regulated by group sanctions, in the formal Rules and duty regulations. At last group sanctions serve in informal group as influence methods on management of behaviour, in formal Rewardings and penalties. All these distinctions promote creation in informal groups of special interpersonal relations which make at times stronger impact on behaviour of workers, than the administrative power. Therefore, though informal groups are created not at will of the management, each manager should reckon with

them. How informal groups with formal co-operate, efficiency of the organisation depends finally. Informal groups have many the advantages. They facilitate administrative loading of management: if members of such group divide the organisation purposes carry out the control. Informal groups promote cooperation and cooperation, reception of satisfaction from work, serve some kind of the valve for an exit of emotions of workers, improve communications in the organisation. Use of all these possibilities for increase of efficiency of the organisation? A direct duty of management. Exist a number of the rules checked up in practice which each manager should adhere in the work with informal groups. Their essence is reduced to, that: 1. To recognise existence of informal group and to