Ernest Miller Hemingway — страница 4

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fascism.” HEMINGWAY`S IDEAS REGARDING LITERATURE AND WRITERS Hemingway didn`t consider himself a theoretician but he made some important contributions[41] to theory. He was of the opinion that art and literature play an important role in the world: “A work of art endures[42] forever.” Hemingway stressed the role of the writer: “Trying to write something of permanent value is a full-time job even though only a few hours a day are spent on the actual writing. A writer can be compared to a well[43]. There are as many kinds of wells as there are writers. The important thing is to have good water in the well and it is better to take a regular amount out than to pump[44] the well dry and wait for it to refill.” He paid much attention to a writer`s qualifications: “First

there must be talent, much talent. Talent such as Kipling had. Then there must be discipline, the discipline of Flaubert.[45] Then there must be…an absolute conscience[46] as unchanging as the standard meter in Paris, to prevent faking…” He said that a writer should be a man of knowledge and experience: “There are some things which cannot be learned quickly, and time, which is all we have, must be paid heavily for their acquiring[47]. There are the very simplest things and because it takes a man`s life to know them the little new that each man gets from life is costly and the only her has to leave.” Rich experience enabled[48] him to make the following conclusion: “The hardest thing in the world to do is to write straight honest prose on human beings. First you have

to know the subject: then you have to know how to write…Books should be about the people you know, that you love and hate, not about the people you study up about. If you write them truly they will have all the economic implications[49] a book can hold.” Hemingway stressed the importance of truth in fiction[50]: “A writer`s job is to tell the truth. His standard of fidelity[51] to the truth should be so high that his experience, should produce a truer account than anything factual can be.” Hemingway made a careful study of both American and European literary and cultural traditions. He thoroughly studied the works of many writers, among them Flaubert, Stendhal[52], Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Chekhov, Maupassant, Dante, Virgil and many others. Hemingway considered

among his “teachers” many painters and composers as well. The writer said he learned as much from painters about how to write as from writers, and that “what one learns from composers and from the study of harmony and counterpoint[53]” should be obvious[54]. He repeatedly stressed the importance which Russian literature had had for him. HEMINGWAY`S STYLE OF WRITING Hemingway`s aim to write absolute truth induced him to create a new style. He avoided conventional narration [55]in his stories. He tried to make readers understand his ideas about nature, labour, and war by sketching in vivid scenes his own experience in war, and tell his readers about the peasants and fishermen by presenting real scenes of hard toil[56]. Leaving out many unnecessary details Hemingway mastered

a new short-story form. Some of these short stories he used for his novels. That`s the way all my novels got started,” he said. The language of Hemingway`s works is of bare[57] simplicity; it is in keeping with the characters he wanted to portray[58]. It is surprising how he reveals[59] the inner[60] world of his personages in short dialogues and colloquial phrases. Plain words in simple declarative[61] sentences bring out the sensations of the central characters and at the same time make the reader participate in the events of the story. “I use the oldest words in the English language.” Hemingway said. Hemingway was the inventor of the so-called “theory of an iceberg”: he wrote that“…if a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about , he may omit

things that he knows, and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things, as strongly as though the writer has stated them. The dignity[62] of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water.” The conclusion Leo Lania, Hemingway`s biographer, wrote: “Many serious and important authors have learnt from him; from his incorruptible objectivity, his exceptional gift of observation; from his language, as clear as the mountain stream which reveals each single pebble[63] on the bottom. He has done more than anybody else to strip American literature of sentimentality and free American prose from bombast[64] and artificial pathos. He has shown a complete generation of authors how to write natural and unliterary dialogue