Ernest Miller Hemingway — страница 3

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got in Spain helped him to write the play “The Fifth Column” (1938), some short stories (“The Chauffeurs[22] of Madrid”, “Old Man at the Bridge”, “The Butterfly and the Tank”, “On the Americans Dead in Spain” and others), the novel “For Whom the Bell Tolls” (1940), and to complete his novel “To Have and Have Not”. When Hemingway learned about the invasion of the Soviet Union by German troops, he addressed a telegram to our country expressing his support of the heroic struggle of our people. For some months in 1942-1943 he voluntarily patrolled the Cuban coast in his boat Pilar chasing[23] submarines in the Caribbean Sea. From 1942 on, he lived much of the time in Cuba. His short novel “The Old an and the Sea” was a tribute[24] to a simple man

― a Cuban fisherman. It was after writing this book that he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954. While traveling in Africa in 1954 he had two narrow escapes[25] in successive air crashes. His health began to deteriorate[26]. The last years of his life he was seriously ill. He died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Ketchum, Idaho, on July 2, 1961. He was buried at Ketchum. His house in Cuba was converted into museum by the Revolutionary Government of Cuba. In 1966 a memorial was erected to his memory with the following words on it: Best of all he loved the fall The leaves yellow on the cottonwoods[27] Leaves floating on the trout[28] streams And above the hills The high blue windless skies …Now he will be a part of them forever. P.S. Hemingway was married

four times. HEMINGWAY`S SOCIAL VIEWPOINT Hemingway was a democrat and humanist. All his life he fought against war and fascism and criticized the so-called “American way of life”. the First World War influenced him a great deal. He saw the horrors and tragedy suffered by both soldiers and civilians. In the preface[29] to a collection of war stories “Men at War” (1942) he wrote about the First World War that it had been “the most colossal, murderous, mismanaged[30] butchery that has ever taken place on Earth”. He was convinced that after the First World War the world was on the way to revolution: “In those days we who believed in it, looked for it at any time, expected it, hoped for it, ― for it was the logical thing.” A series of stories on this subject make

up the book “In Our Time” (1924). Hemingway said: “The only way to combat the murder that is war, is to show the dirty combinations that make it and the criminals and swine that hope for it and the idiotic way they run it when they get it so that an honest man will distrust it as he would a racket and refuse to be enslaved into it.” His participation[31] in the First World War, the Civil War in Spain, the Second World War taught him to see the real nature of war. In the preface to the novel “A Farewell to Arms”, published after the Second World War, he wrote: “I believe that all the people who stand to profit[32] by a war and who help provoke it should be shot on the first day it starts by accredited representatives of the loyal citizens of their country who will

fight it. The author of this book would be very glad to take charge[33] of this shooting if legally delegated by those who will fight…” He was one of the first to warn against the fatal danger of fascism. Hemingway`s first feature-articles on fascism were written at the beginning of the twenties. Having traced the development of fascism in Italy, he wrote in his article called “Italy`s Fascists” that first it was an organization of counter-attackers against the communist demonstrations, then it became a political party, and now it is a political and military party that is enlisting[34] the workers of Italy and invading the field of the labour organizations. In his article “Genoa Conference” he noted that the fascists “were under the tacit[35] protection of the

government, if not its active support”, that “they had a taste of unpenalized[36] lawlessness, unpunished murder, and the right to riot[37] when and where they pleased”. He said that Mussolini was the biggest bluff[38] in Europe. For Hemingway fascism meant war first of all. “There has been war in Spain, now for two years,” he wrote in an article “Programme of US Realism”. “There has been war in China for a year. War is due in Europe by next summer at the latest.” His prediction was right. He was also fully aware[39] of the danger that fascism meant for literature: “There is only one form of government that cannot produce good writers, and that system is fascism. For fascism is a lie told by bullies[40]. A writer who will not lie cannot live or work under