Ekonomiko-geographical description of Australia

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Australia The course Work of Krim Yulia Group 1 "J" Zarafshan 2010 Australia Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms Anthem:Advance Australia FairN1 Capital Canberra Largest city Sydney Official languages NoneN2 National language English (de facto)N2 Demonym Australian,Aussie[1][2] (colloquial) Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of Australia - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II - Governor-General Quentin Bryce - Prime Minister Kevin Rudd Independence from the United Kingdom - Constitution 1 January 1901 - Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 - Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939) - Australia Act 3 March 1986 Area - Total 7,617,930km2(6th)2,941,299sqmi Population -

2010estimate 22,115,847[3](51st) - 2006census 19,855,288[4] - Density 2.833/km2(232nd)7.3/sqmi GDP(PPP) 2008estimate - Total $799.054 billion[5](18th) - Per capita $36,918[5](15th) GDP (nominal) 2008estimate - Total $1.013 trillion[5](14th) - Per capita $46,824[5](13th) HDI(2007) ▲ 0.970[6](veryhigh)(2nd) Currency Australian dollar (AUD) Time zone variousN3 (UTC+8 to +10.5) - Summer(DST) variousN3(UTC+8 to +11.5) Drives on the left Internet TLD .au Calling code +61 Australia (pronounced /əˈstreɪljə/ ə-STRAYL-yə or /ɒˈstreɪljə/ o-STRAYL-yə,[7] or more formally as /ɔːˈstreɪliə/ aw-STRAY-lee-ə), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent (the world's smallest),[8][9] the

island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.N4 Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the southeast. For some 40,000 years before European settlement commenced in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 individual nations[10] of indigenous Australians.[11] After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[12] the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population

grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and during the 19th century another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth realm. The population is 22 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. The nation's capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory. Australia is a developed country, with a prosperous multicultural society and excellent results in many international comparisons of national performance

such as human development, quality of life, health care, life expectancy, public education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.[13] Australian cities routinely rank among the world's highest in terms of cultural offerings and quality of life. It is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ANZUS, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, South Pacific Forum, and the World Trade Organization. Etymology Artist's rendition of Port Jackson, the site where Sydney was established, viewed from the South Head. (From A Voyage to Terra Australis.) The name Australia is derived from the Latin australis, meaning "southern". Legends of an "unknown land of the