Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

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Contents INTRODUCTION 1 1.      THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE 5 1.1 Mutual Trade 8 1.2 Cooperating in oil gas and power 15 1.3 Cooperating in sphere of transport and communication 18 2.      CONDITION OF FOREIGN TRADE BOTH DEV’T OF THE JOINT / ENTERPRISES KAZAKHSAN AND RUSSIA 2.1 Some aspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia 22 2.2 The factors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia 24 2.3 Engaging the foreign investments 26 2.4 Cooperating in the field of electric power industry 27 2.5 Cooperating in the field of machine construction industry 28 2.6 Cooperating in the field of a uranium industry 29 3.      involvement in international organizations,

kazakhstan and russia 31 3.1 The Eurasian Union: Realities and Perspectives 34 4. VITAL PROBLEMS OF THE PRESENT-DAY STATE OF 44 KAZAKHSTANI-RUSSIAN RELATIONS CONCLUSION 61 LIST OF USED SOURSES 65 INTRODUCTION The origins of Kazakhstani-Russian relations lie in hoary antiquity, when Kazakhs and Russians lived on the vast Eur­asian territory and, being neighbors, developed good-neigh­borly relations in all the spheres of human activity. In analyzing the relations between Rus and the Great Steppe, one cannot fail to mention the work of the greatest specialist in this field, Lev N. Gumilyov. In his preface to Gumilyov's book, Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe, Academi­cian Dmitry S. Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistence economy and the

level of prosperity of ancient societies, and thus their military pow­er, the author also compares historical events and climactic fluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he ar­rived at a series of clarifications, which enabled him to describe in detail the historical-geographic backdrop against which var­ious cultural influences came in conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe. It must be noted in any analysis of the emergence of the 15 new, post-Soviet states on the map of Eurasia that certain specific features marked the gen­esis of each of them. The present study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of Kazakhstan, and the specificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning the republic's political

leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies, regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring to ease as much as possible the destructive consequences at every stage in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last former Soviet republic to declare its independence - not out of any strong gravitation toward the past or peripheral political development let us recall that Kazakhstan was one of the first to experience, in December 1986, the repressive pow­er of totalitarianism then already withering away but because it understood that artificial acceleration of this process is fraught with the danger of serious upheavals. The history of numerous bloody ethnic, social, and even interstate conflicts in the post-Soviet space bears

striking evidence of that. The immediate subject matter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereignty of one of the post-Soviet countries but the emergence and development against this background of new interstate relations of two major re­publics of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan and Russia. In our view, it is relations between precisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishment of equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states. This view is borne out by a sufficiently smooth and planned, though far from problem-free, development of bilateral Kaza­khstani-Russian relations, a meaningful historical tradition of mutual relations, and an absence of sharp turns or wavering due to subjective or external causes.