Economic methods of protection environment — страница 2
objective information of the creation, implementation and evaluation of environmental policy requires environmental monitoring system. Moreover, in some countries such as Japan, each governing law requires Administrative bodies to oversee the permanent-pollution. Environmental monitoring can be used in the following phases of environmental policy: 1) Evaluation of a strategy to test the possibility of unintended consequences in the future. 2) Activities to reduce pollution of the environment, for example: - Short-term monitoring at a disastrously over-pollution to protect human health; - Monitoring compliance with emission standards and the quality of the environment; - Monitoring in the integrated assessment of environmental impacts. 3) Identify emerging issues and creating policies to address them. The distribution of roles in environmental monitoring of the national government, state (regional) and local authorities depends on the structure of institutes in each country. Typically, monitoring is carried out by local authorities. They have to monitor on-vat emissions and respond to the excess of the limits and other permit conditions, and if the activity is carried out without the required permit. If permission is not provided, but local authorities must verify whether the activities in accordance with the special requirements of legislation in this field. Private agencies and companies are also involved in many cases, the monitoring scheme. This is mainly as part of the "polluter pays" principle. It is obvious that the first step in controlling pollution is the knowledge of the type and amount of pollutant emissions. Therefore, firms engaged in monitoring their own emissions in order to assess compliance with their permits or licenses and regulatory (standard) state of the environment in the vicinity of the object. Economic regulation of protection environment Many professionals, including lawyers, in developed countries consider environmental issues as a matter of fact the economic problems. This position is consistent with that currently in many countries and particularly in the U.S. there is the weakening of the administrative re-gulirovaniya economy. Economic methods of targeted, clearly define the requirements for managed objects that, but in contrast to the administrative commands are being taken into account that the facilities management deliberately set themselves goals and just as consciously strive to achieve. Such goals - an important feature otlichitel loss management in the social and economic-based systems. Therefore, the essence of economic methods of organization of the managed objects through the creation of the benefits of consumption. These methods of economic management is different from the stimulate that provides encouragement and sanction of the non-economic nature. The role of economic instruments is to establish governance arrangements that promote sredoohrannuyu activities and seek ways to minimize the economic costs incurred by society to achieve same-Laem state of the environment and its individual components ponentov. Among the economic instruments of environmental management include: Payments or taxes for the use of natural resources; - Compensation payments for disposal of natural resources from the purposeful use of or deterioration of quality due to industrial activities; - Charges or taxes on emissions of polluting ve-societies to the environment; - An additional tax on business profits, you are allowed to environmentally-harmful products, or apply-ing ecologically dangerous technology. All of these purely economic instruments are used by Observing environmental standards, the most effective way.