Economic methods of protection environment

  • Просмотров 2323
  • Скачиваний 102
  • Размер файла 15

PROJECT Ivanov Maxim From 8B Economic methods of protection environment Environmental standards Thinking about the environment, we can not say about the environmental standards. The distinction that separates this from-being of our planet from environmental disaster on so thin that it should not be an "ecology in the public, but the extent of deviation of environmental characteristics of the habitat values of the minimum non-essential to living life planet. Today, these values are elevated to the rank of mandatory environmental standards. Environmental quality standards set legally binding limits on pollution or adverse effects, which should not be exceeded in the environment or its components. These standards were first used in the U.S. in the early 70-ies in the

federal laws on air quality and water quality. In accordance with Act 1970 of the number of air standards that are imposed at the state level to plan activities tries to comply with national air quality standards (NSKV) and subject to the of existing and new sources of air pollution. In an amendment paper in 1977 on the law NSKV divided into primary and secondary. Primary set the maximum permissible amount (MAC) chemicals-substances in the atmosphere in order to protect the health of the population, secondary impose the maximum permissible levels of pollution, (remote), sufficient to protect the environment and "public welfare" from the real and potential effects of pollution . Standards of quality of the environment there and in the countries of Eastern Europe, but not

observed due to the lack of the relevant legislative frameworks. From countries outside Western Europe in the last few years they have been introduced, deny in Germany and Denmark. Traditional environmental quality standards are the standards of air quality and water, noise and vibration, unpleasant smells. Commercial standards - standards for products normally but nationwide, that can be specified: - Limiting the levels of pollutants or adverse effects in the product; - Properties and characteristics of construction products; - How to use. Commercial standards used to ban or curtail the production of environmentally harmful output. If necessary, they also include the rules of testing, packaging and labeling products. Technological standards are a professional tsifikatsii

ecological nature of media Technology and equipment of technological processes etc. They may be the construction and maintenance. Industry in many countries, dissatisfied with the fact that strict economic laws and regulations place them at a disadvantage in competition with foreign firms, which face a more lenient regulation. Such an argument is given in respect of environmental taxes and charges. These statements, however, does not fully correspond to the reality. Long-term benefits are often re-reveshivaet short-term lack of competitiveness. The original practice was formed in Japan, where the controls are oriented on the development of primarily health standards, supplemented by restrictions of emissions for certain industries and types of production. Environmental standards

are developed in the so-called public negotiations between industrial firms and local authorities. In Finland, there is also no uniform system of environmental standards for emissions. Instead, each region has the right to negotiate with the builders and to reach agreement on an acceptable environmental impact. There is another kind of standards - standards "interregional diffusion, which determine the amount of pollutants emanating from the region for a certain period of time. Firms in Japan, Germany, Sweden and other countries are already responding to higher energy prices, the existing environmental standards and their future more stringent manufacturing processes more efficient and more environmentally friendly products. Monitoring of environmental environment To provide