Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 9

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out on several parametres: to kinds of drugs, stages of their manufacture and distribution, manufacture and sale territories, the basic routes and ways of delivery, change of tendencies of these parametres for the last years. The characteristic of the markets of principal views of drugs According to the experts, today in the world it is made from 1 to 1,5 thousand t chlorohydrin cocaine. The basic consumers of a drug - the USA, Europe, Japan, Hong Kong. In the United States which is the heavy user of cocaine in the world, according to the Interpol, is late more than 70 % of illegal deliveries of a drug. The basic directions of cocaine contraband - the American-Mexican border and Florida. A parity "volume - the price" does cocaine by one of the most favourable in drugs

business. It became one of the reasons of the greatest level of integration and rigid structurization of a cocaine drug mafia (cartels) in comparison with suppliers of other kinds of drugs11. In 2009 the volume of withdrawals of cocaine has made nearby 495 t that on 33 % more than in 2008. The cocaine most part is still withdrawn on the American continent, mainly in the countries adjoining on the states - manufacturers of cocaine: Chile, Ecuador, the countries of Central America, Venezuela and Paraguay. In 2009 55 % of all cases of withdrawal of cocaine it was necessary to the South America (including Central America and Caribbean basin), 28 % - to the North America and 17 % - to Europe. Steady growth of volume of withdrawals of cocaine in Europe that reflects the basic changes

in structure of a turn of cocaine became the most amazing tendency of last years12. Cocaine transportation is usually carried out by traditional means: with use of the drugs couriers transporting cargo on commercial airlines. The Nigerian groupings participating in a transfer of cocaine in the countries of Europe, Asia and Africa, since 1991, began to involve in the activity of citizens of other states, such as the USA. Similar practice of use as drugs couriers not citizens of Nigeria, and also attraction of persons from the countries consuming drugs, proceeds already more than 10 years. Larger parties hide in container cargoes which send to Europe and the USA sea transport. Usually the commercial vessels transporting lawful cargoes are for this purpose used, which sheer in the

high sea in a direction of the countries of Caribbean basin to take away cargo of cocaine which then is delivered in the largest seaports or is forwarded through sea coastal lines. In total for 2009 it has been made opiat on 747 million dollars, and 80 % - in Afghanistan (about 600 million dollars). At global level cultivation опийного a poppy has increased on 16 %, basically at the expense of increase in crops in Afghanistan. In South East Asia since 1998 the tendency to decrease культивирования proceeds. In 2009 more than 67 % of universal crops were in Afghanistan. The area of the cultivated fields here has increased from 80 thousand in hectare in 2008 to 131 thousand in hectare in 2009. Now illegal crops are in all 34 provinces of the country.

Withdrawal опиатов (heroin, морфина and the opium, expressed in a heroin equivalent) at global level has increased in 2008 by 33 % in comparison with level of 2007. This increase became a consequence of doubling of volumes confiscated морфина that has reflected renewal of large-scale cultivation and processing опийного a poppy in Afghanistan in 2007. Heroin withdrawal has increased by 10 % (53,3), opium - on 38 % (134) and morphinin 77 % (43,7) from total amount confiscated opiat13. The volume of withdrawals in the Western Europe has decreased on 13 % and has made 19,4t. It has been most of all confiscated in Great Britain and Italy - the largest European markets опиатов. In spite of the fact that the price for heroin here continues to fall (69

euros for gramme in 2006, 63 euros in 2007 and 60 euros in 2008), the markets of the Western and Central Europe remain the most profitable places of sale of this drug. As to abusing heroin, position in countries of Western Europe either remains stable, or (consumption) decrease was marked. The largest market of heroin in Europe is, most likely, Russia: total number of the persons who are on drugs, makes, by estimations, from 3 to 4 million, 1/3 from which - the persons abusing heroin. Abusing opium continues to increase in China. In 2008-2009 the number of the registered addicts increased and has exceeded 1 million persons that make 15-fold increase during 2005-2007. The message on the most considerable decrease in level of abusing опиатами has during the last years