Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 8

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the new markets in various regions of the world. Among experts there are disputes on drugs cartels concern what type of the organisation. Experts of Management in struggle against drugs of the USA define cartel as «the big corporation having a number of vice-presidents». Each of them heads any branch or "the consortium" which members work together when it is them arranges. When necessity disappears, they operate at own risk. The American magazine "Time" considers cartel «confederation of criminal families», and the Colombian magazine "Semana" characterises it as «federation of numerous independent groups which conclude from time to time the strategic unions». Experts of an English weekly journal "Economist" reject these definitions,

declaring that the term "cartel" simplifies organizational structure of the corporations which are engaged in the drugs traffic that quite often conducts to errors in struggle against them. The Chilean experts giving a great attention to the given problem underline transnational character of drugs business: «the Drugs traffic is not one more kind of illegal activity, which great variety. This huge and difficult transnational enterprise which generated the new phenomenon in the modern world, namely so-called drugs economy»10. Many analysts consider that the international narcooperations left far for frameworks of purely "economic activities". One of researchers of this problem, James Millz, characterises drugs business as follows:« The international industry

of drugs is actually at all and not the industry, it is empire. Sovereign, self-satisfied and haughty it is underground empire though and often torn apart by internal struggle, always addressed to the world community the rallied front. Today it showed herself to the world so immensely money-grubbing and ruthlessly exploiter, as well as any imperial state of a XIX-th century, so extensive, as well as British Empire, so capable to resolute rallying, as well as the American republic. Aggressive and violent by the nature the underground empire has own armies, diplomats and reconnaissance services, banks, merchant marine fleets and airlines. She aspires to expansion of the domination by all ways – from illegal subversive activities before open war ». At all variety of cartels in

them the fear cast-iron discipline, because punishment one – death reigns. Survivability of the transnational criminal organisations also is to no small degree connected by that, performing the operations, they completely ignore borders of the states, the national sovereignty while the international and national forces combating them, are obliged to operate by the strict rules established by these attributes of statehood. The transnational organisations which are engaged in drugs business, have certain commodity markets not only in the territorial relation, but also are frequent by "production" kinds (heroin, cocaine, marihuana, etc.) Besides, they can be substantially differentiated functionally, on production phases and spreads of drug addiction. Parts of

transnational organisations are focused on multistage process: from manufacture before realisation of any one drug (for example, heroin). The control over all chain in the drugs business industry: from cultivation drug contents plants and manufacture of natural or synthetic drugs before their sale and gain legalisation – allows such organisations to weaken actions of law enforcement bodies on drug trafficking suppression and repeatedly to raise profit on a difference of the prices between wholesale and retail. A vivid example such ТПО are the Colombian drugs cartels which, as a matter of fact, represent industrial concerns on manufacture of cocaine from raw materials growing in the South America. They supervise export of the made cocaine on the markets of the USA, Canada and

Europe. Others transnational organisations prefer to carry out activity only at separate stages of a drug trafficking. So, for example, the Nigerian criminal organisations are engaged basically in transportation and distribution of different kinds of drugs. Nigeria continues to remain the basic link in drug-dealing structure on the African continent, and also the main reloading point through which drug traffic between the countries East and the Western world is carried out. The Mexican cartels, without being engaged in manufacture of drugs, carry out only their transportation and distribution. The Turkish organisations are known for processing of heroin and its delivery in countries of Western Europe. Thus, drugs business is multidimensional, its characteristic should be carried