Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 6

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Mexico has in the mid-eighties led to changes in geography of manufacture and sale of drugs, manufacture has extended to Brazil, Venezuela, Ecuador, Surinam, Haiti and Paraguay became the important reloading points; - Crash in 1988 of a mode Ne Fault in Myanma (Burma). Myanma already was for a long time the large manufacturer of opium, but the government Not Fault periodically carried out retaliatory operations against manufacturers and dealers opium. In the conditions of the political instability which has arisen after falling of the government Not Fault, intensity of struggle against drugs business grew weak, and as a result to the beginning of 90th years Myanma has turned to the world's largest manufacturer of opium; - A combination of intensive measures in Colombia, followed

after murder of the candidate in Carlos Galany's presidents in August, 1989, and intervention of the USA to Panama in December, 1989 have led to certain shifts in the drugs industry of Latin America: Panama has ceased to exist as the large centre of drug-dealing, cocaine manufacture in Colombia was reduced and its manufacture in Peru has increased, operations with drugs in Argentina, Chile and other countries of the South America have extended; there was a relative easing of Medical Elinsky drugs cartel and strengthening of its competitor – cartel of Cali; - Obvious saturation of the market of cocaine in the USA in the early nineties, a consequence of that became aspiration of drugs businessmen to a diversification of "product" and the markets. Latin American drug

pusher began to be engaged in development and expansion of the markets in Europe, Japan and on Middle East. Cartel of Cali, for example, the beginnings рекрутировать couriers in Poland for an illicit crossing of cocaine through the Polsko-German border; law enforcement bodies of Czechia and Poland have found out the underground network of the organisations covering Poland, Czechia and the Netherlands, the Czech-Colombian company on import of agrarian production was the centre of this network; - Incessant experiments on creation of new psychotropic substances, such as "snow". These drugs can be made in any place in the presence of corresponding chemical substances; - Drug traffic internationalisation. So, some countries are not manufacturers of drugs and do

not face sharply problems of abusing them, but appear deeply involved in process of drug-dealing owing to the geographical position. For example, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan have got great value in drug-dealing in Central Asia, Gyana and Trinidad and Tobago became the important reloading points at movement of drugs from Colombia in the USA, and Nigeria – for a stream of heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia. Prompt growth and the international expansion of the drugs business, entangling the networks all new and new countries, were the major, but not defining factor of evolution of a drugs situation in the modern world. The increasing value gets active counteraction to this harm at the international and national level which is carried out on the basis of numerous programs,

such, as the United Nations Program under the international control over drugs, the European plan of action on struggle against drugs (1995 – 1999), the sub regional Program under the control over drugs in South East Asia, the Interamerican drugs strategy, anti-drug and a policy the certifications spent by the USA and many other things. An important role softening with the period termination «cold war» political contradictions has played, and cooperation of the states in sphere of struggle against drugs business became practically more realizable action. For example, still impracticable cooperation programs in which would participate simultaneously Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Palestinian autonomy (meanwhile such program is entered in February, 1999) or cooperation of India and

Pakistan in questions of struggle against a drug trafficking (this cooperation under the aegis of Management on struggle against drugs and preventive maintenance of criminality of the United Nations has begun in the late nineties) recently seemed. In 1998 General Assembly of the United Nations special session on problems of drugs on which there were objects in view – twice to reduce consumption of drugs has been spent and it is essential to reduce their illegal manufacture by 2008. At that time these purposes could seem unattainable, but experience of last two years testifies that search of ways of an effective control over drugs business all the same yields positive results7. The report on position with drugs in the world for 2000 – work of Management of the United Nations