Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 5

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to a sharp aggravation of social and economic problems is in these conditions the favorable environment for drugs business development. In similar cases the most active people are actively involved in drugs business with the limited financial and economic resources. - Corruption of the governments which members get huge profit on illegal activity and consequently do not undertake any measures for its reduction or restraint. Distinction between corrupted and entered arrangement to criminals the government consists only in degree of direct participation of its members in drugs business. In a number of the countries, using the corrupted politicians, accomplices in law enforcement bodies, armies, customs, the drug mafia has achieved unlimited influence. In particular, in Bolivia in

80th so-called «drugs cratia» represented, possibly, vivid example of a direct communication of the government with the criminal organisation which was engaged in drug traffic. Experts assert that it was impossible to draw a distinction between the military Bolivian government and suppliers of drugs. At the same time the state sovereignty in which territory there are similar criminal formations, provides with it reliable protection against attempts of other countries to stop illegal activity, to liquidate the central links and branches of criminal structures. - Increasing demand for the illegal goods. So, occurrence in the early eighties the Colombian organisations on cocaine contraband partly speaks ultrahigh norm of profitableness of drugs business, ease of overcoming of

boundary barriers to import in the USA. - Inequality preservation between industrially developed and developing states, unprofitable position in which the last are put in international trade system, interfere with their normal economic progress and realisation of the possibilities given by lawful commercial activity. The choice of illegal ways of business becomes attractive alternative to poverty. In particular, weakness and instability of the markets of agricultural production (to Bolivias, Peru and a number of other countries) were made культивирование by cooks and opium rather favourable employment for local peasants. Liberalisation of the foreign trade activity. - The economic crises stimulating search of improvement of a financial position by participation in

illegal business. Businessmen use there the saved up knowledge and experience of traditional manufactures. In the conditions of crisis participation in drugs business allows to soften temporarily a problem of employment of a considerable part of the population. In these conditions activity of illegal formations starts to be perceived positively. For example, occurrence of the Colombian cartel as one of the main cocaine centers is caused by reduction of its role as large manufacturer of the textile goods. Drug dealers have provided alternative employment of a labour, having won thereby liking of local population. Similar loyalty has essential value as complicates work of services of counterespionage for criminals and counteracts productivity of operations of law enforcement

bodies. Besides, researchers name the following events which have caused changes in the organisation and activity of the industry of manufacture of drugs, and also manufacture rapid growth last two decades of the XX-th century: - The sharp increase in demand at cocaine in the USA in 80th years, it has led to activization of efforts of the Colombian manufacturers of the drugs directed on eliminating the basic competitors, to expand capacities on raw materials processing, to improve routes of delivery of drugs and to neutralise measures of the Colombian authorities on execution of the laws, concerning illegal drugs business; - Intrusion of the Soviet armies into Afghanistan into 1979 and the long conflict which has followed it promoting growth of manufacture of opium which in turn,

provided a source of means for conducting war against the USSR. There is a version about working out of CIA of the special program code-named «White jihad» during the Soviet-Afghani conflict which essence consisted in use of Afghanistan as base for manufacturing of opium-raw and its transfer in republics USSR. Besides, the military conflict has allowed drug dealers, having got of support of Mojaheds of Iran and Pakistan, to use these countries as transit routes; - Islamic revolution in Iran when the help of the Iranian government to fundamentalists in Doline Bekaa has undermined antidrug operations in Lebanon and in region as a whole and has allowed Iran to become the important element in system of distribution of heroin; - Realisation of rigid antidrug measures in Colombia and