Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 2

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nineties added the new factors accompanying globalisation financial, bank, trading, technological, information and other areas of human activity. These factors, on the one hand, are reflected in a way of life of the person, and with another – open new possibilities for businessmen of drug business. And these new possibilities are reflected as in structure and ways of manufacture drugs, and on ways of delivery, trade, consumption. By approximate calculations, for today worldwide over 200 million persons are on drugs a various kind. Including about 140 million people smoke marihuana - the most widespread drug, cocaine use 13 million people, and heroin - 8 million, 30 million people’s abuse stimulators amphetamine. The quantity of consumers of drugs increases every year and

basically at the expense of defeat by drugs of the most vulnerable part of the population - youth. In some countries the number of schoolboys and full age young men which, by own recognition, tried to consume marihuana, makes 37 %. Along with it the tendency of expansion of activity of the international criminal groupings was outlined. Thanks to the international character and a market basis drug business faster, than legal business, reacts to these changes, using globalisation for expansion of a drug network and expansion in all directions. In an active of drug businessmen all advantages of shadow economy – tax free, absence of control, concentration of huge capitals, network international structure of the organisation of corporate type which covers the basic links of the drug

industry and connects in a uniform global network of all participants of a drug trafficking – making, consuming and providing transit of drug cargoes of the country. And the specific goods – a drug thanks to an interdiction have the highest prices defined not by production costs, and demand in the drug market of the consumer dependent on it and from distance from it to a point of production2. The drug industry is enough steady because of a stable demand and brings considerable profits in connection with absence some a serious competition between the organisations which are engaged in this kind of criminal business. The turn of the world drug industry is estimated by experts of the United Nations approximately in 400 billion dollars a year that makes about 8 % of a turn of all

international trade. The report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world of 1997 notices that the world turn of drug business in separate years exceeds a turn of the world market of cars or the world market of ferrous metals. One only the Colombian cartels presented more than 500 companies, in the late nineties of the XX-th century took from drug traffic in the USA of 20 billion dollars of annual profit. For comparison we will notice that totally national budgets of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru made at that point in time only about 9 billion American dollars annually. Operations with drugs bring from 300 to 2000 % have arrived that does their attractive and for the transnational criminal organisations, and for separate groups of criminals, whose purpose is

reception of the maximum profit in short terms3. Thus the drug industry is steadily improved, raising technical, financial potential, adapting advanced achievements of scientific and technical progress for the requirements. Transnational drug syndicates in criminal activity use the advanced means of arms and an ammunition, systems of electronic equipment, the newest methods of maintenance of own safety. A part of the profit received from drug traffic, drug businessmen direct on acquisition of equipment of communication, cryptographic devices, and radio with use of high-speed measurement of frequency, receivers for revealing of radar. By estimations of experts, drug business annually puts about 125 million dollars in purchase new «technicians of alarm investigation». Drug

cartels have perfectly armed security forces in which order there is the advanced weapon, up to the portable is rocket-surface-to-air missile systems. And on September, 8th, 2000 on world information channels has passed the message on detection in Colombia in working suburb Fakatativa (18 km from Bogota) shipyards with almost collected тридцатиметровой a submarine on which drug businessmen were going to take out the production. Drug business development is closely connected with traffic in arms development. Annually from drug criminals from all regions of the world it is withdrawn about 100 thousand units of fire-arms; comes to light over 500 secret runways and platforms, about the same quantity of the flying machines used by drug syndicates, gets off during