Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 11

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Netherlands (the largest manufacturer), Belgium, Poland concern their number, the states of Baltic and Germany16. In manufacture САР which universal volume has grown for last decade, the basic place occupies methamphetamine, and then follow "ecstasy" and amphetamine. In 2008 11253 underground laboratories have been liquidated. More than 80 % from them made methamphetamine. In the early nineties this share did not exceed 20 %. The tendency to decrease in 2007-2008 was replaced by growth of volume of withdrawals amphetamine with 13 %. Large withdrawals have been made in Thailand (20 %), China (18 %), the USA (14 %), Philippines (10 %), Great Britain, the Netherlands and Australia (on 6 %). In Asia the consumption problem amphetamine costs on the second place after

consumption опиатов: all 2/3 of consumers’ amphetamine and methamphetamine live here. In some countries preparations amphetamine groups became more popular some heroin. In 2008 amphetamine and methamphetamine used about 26 million persons that makes 0,6 % from world number of persons at the age from 15 till 64 years. Whereas "ecstasy" – 7,9 million persons. Consumption "ecstasy" now basically is concentrated in Europe and the North America. The western and the Central Europe is the consumer of 1/3 world volumes "ecstasy". Hardly more low a consumption level in the North American countries - 30 %. All last decade universal consumption "ecstasy" steadily grew and, most likely, will continue the growth the next years though and not

so it is prompt as, for example, in the late nineties. Invariable popularity and, as consequence, use distribution "ecstasy" in many developing countries remain. The turn of this branch of the drugs industry is estimated in 65 billion dollars a year17. Capacities of the laboratories intended for manufacture of heroin, allow making in parallel amphetamine. In the Western Europe, especially in the Netherlands and Great Britain, small laboratories of the big capacity are extended. Manufacture of stimulators in the states of Baltic, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Poland and the USA has extended. As a whole synthetic drugs occupy a leading position among other groups of narcotic and strong substances. They do not demand long cultivation and the possible losses

connected with it (for example, as a result of a drought, destruction of plantations, etc.); the minimum volume of substance (the dose can make a milligramme share) promotes more safe transportation, and the wide range of consumers provides high incomes. Besides, scientific and technical progress allows to synthesise drugs of new generation, cheaper and stronger. Despite positive tendencies of decrease in manufacture of drugs in some countries, noted in the report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world for 2004, drugs business continues to remain a highly remunerative kind of transnational, criminal activity. Manufacture of drugs of new generation allows to reduce the prices and to involve in an illegal drugs turn the increasing quantity of people. The

structure of the transnational organisations which are engaged in drugs business, helps to duck out easily, endowing only local links of retail trade and couriers. The transnationality of character of activity does not allow jurisdictions of the separate countries to struggle effectively with drugs business. Thus drugs business actively stimulates other kinds of transnational criminal activity. Interrelation of drugs business with other global problems of mankind The problem of illegal manufacture of drugs very closely intertwines with other global problems of mankind. This distribution of AIDS, financing of activity of terrorists, organised crime development as a whole. One more problem closely connected with a drug trafficking and having global character – polarisation of the

states, the increasing deepening of an industrial inequality. In a context of a problem a camp of "the third world» attempt to consider an illegal drugs turn in the Report of the United Nations on position with drugs in the world for 2000 is made. According to experts of the United Nations, that geographically manufactures of drugs more and more concentrates in territory of such states – not simply coincidence. To approach to it is necessary not from that position that the states of "the third world» intentionally are engaged in drugs manufacture – are not present, illegal manufacture of drugs – only a symptom of deep problems of these countries, and a drugs problem – one of the most stubborn18. It concerns those states, whose institutes are so weak that