Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century — страница 10

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arrived in 2004 from Oceania. This tendency remained throughout 2005 and 2006. Marihuana, hashish are made of cannabis, hashish oil. Unlike cooks and opium poppy, the hemp is cultivated practically worldwide that is caused by its wide prevalence and unpretentiousness. Cannabis, being enough soft drug, always was popular at consumers. The basic manufacturers of marihuana are: in Africa - Nigeria, Malawi, Lesotho and Swaziland; in America — Mexico, Canada, Jamaica and Colombia; in the Central Asia - Kazakhstan and Kirghizia; in the Near East - Egypt and Lebanon; in Southern Asia - India; in South East Asia - Cambodia, Thailand and Philippines14. The North America, most likely, - the largest manufacturer of marihuana in the world, however this market is isolated: the most part of

the made is consumed on a place. According to administrative bodies of the USA, 2/3 local demands for marihuana are satisfied at the expense of manufacture in the country, 56 % of imported marihuana arrive from Mexico, 20 % - from Canada. Management researches on struggle against drugs and criminality preventive maintenance have shown that about 1/3 universal manufactures of marihuana it is necessary to the North America that makes 14 thousand т. On the second place on volume of made marihuana Africa of-12 thousand т (28 % of total amount). Less large, but important manufacturers - Southern Asia (9 %) and the Central Asia (5 %). Morocco - the largest manufacturer of hashish supplying the West European market. Researches of 2004 have shown that in comparison with level of 2006

decrease культивирования cannabis on 10 % is observed, under cannabis crops has been occupied 120,5 thousand in hectare, whereas in 2003-134 thousand in hectare. From the collected crop in 2007 it has been made nearby 2760 т hashish. Despite the given small decrease, the tendency to growth as in manufacture, and the withdrawal volume, begun still in the early nineties the last century, proceeds. The drugs having the widest turn all over the world, still there are two products of cannabis: marihuana and pitch of cannabis (hashish). The cannabis turn mentions almost all countries of the world. In the majority of the countries the volume of withdrawals of cannabis surpasses volume of withdrawals of other kinds of drugs. The volume of the withdrawn products of

cannabis in 2007 on 24 % more than in 2006 also is the greatest since 1984. It exceeds volume of withdrawals of 90th years more than twice, and also level of 1999 - on 46 %. The universal volume of withdrawals of hashish has made in 2009 1361 т that on 25 % there is more than 2008. The volume of withdrawals basically has increased in the north of Africa (63 %), in the Near East (21 %) and in Europe (26 %)15. As already it was told above, cannabis remains to one of the most widespread drugs in the world: only in 2003 it consumed more than 161 million persons that make 4 % from an aggregate number of aged people of 15-64 years in the world. It is necessary to notice that from cannabis products marihuana uses the greatest popularity. Cannabis uses the greatest demand in Oceania,

the North America and Africa. Cannabis consumption continues to grow in the world: 46 % from an order of 100 interrogated countries have declared growth of consumption and only 16 % - about its decrease. In particular it has mentioned the countries of Latin America, Caribbean basin and Central America, Western and the Eastern Europe and some countries of Asia. Some groups of the preparations having a various spectrum of action concern synthetic drugs - from stimulators to барбитуратов, being, as a matter of fact, somnolent preparations. A variety of drugs of chemical substances used for manufacture, interchangeability of initial components provide availability and rather low production costs синтетиков. As initial components their uncontrollable analogues

that reduce a risk level can be used. Consumption of synthetic drugs - such as "ecstasy" and amphetamine - steadily grows all over the world, partly because people do not realise degree of their danger. By estimations, in 2008 the universal volume of output methamphetamine and amphetamine has made nearby 422 t, and a volume of output " ecstasy " - 90 t (basically MDMA). Thus, an annual volume of output of stimulators amphetamine a number (САР) above corresponding indicators on heroin, but more low - on cocaine. The basic manufacturers methamphetamine are East and South East Asia (including Myanma, China and Philippines) and the North America (the USA and Mexico). The basic manufacturers amphetamine and " ecstasy " are in Europe (78 %). The