Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии — страница 9

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1388 Parliament was repealed. Richard was granted the customs of revenues for life, and the power of parliament was delegated to a committee after the assembly was dissolved. Richard also built up a power base in Cheshire. Events leading to Richard’s downfall followed quickly. The Duke of Norfolk and Henry Bolingbroke, John of Gaunt’s son, accused each other of treason and were banished, the former for life, the latter for 10 years. Hen Gaunt himself died early in 1399, Richard confiscated his estates instead of allowing his son to claim them. Richard seemingly secure, went off to Ireland. Henry, however landed at Ravenspur in Yorkshire to claim, as he said, his father’s estate and the hereditary stewardship. The Percys, the chief lord of the north, welcomed him. Popular

support was widespread, and when Richard returned from Ireland his cause was lost. “The precise course of events is hard to reconstruct., in view of subsequent alteration to the records. A Parliament was called in Richard’s name, but before it was fully assembled at the end of September, its members were presented with Richard’s alleged abdication and Henry’s claim to the throne as legitimate descendant of Henry III as well as by right of conquest.”(34) Thirty-tree articles of deposition were set forth against Richard, and his abdication and deposition were duly accepted. Richard died at Pontefract Castle, either of self-starvation or by smothering. Thus ended the last attempt of a medieval king to exercise arbitrary power. “Whether or not Richard had been motivated

by new theories about the nature of monarchy, as some have claimed, he had failed in the practical measures necessary to sustain his power. He had tried to rule through fear and mistrust in his final years, but he had neither gained sufficient support among the magnates by means of patronage nor created a popular basis of support in the shires and in 1399 Richard was disposed and he abdicated to theу favour of Henry Lancaster and so the dynasty of Plantagenets ended.”(35) CONCLUSION. Summing up the events of Plantagenets rule and their role in the history of England, we should mark the following. 11th - 12th centuries (the first Plantagenets) were the years of constitutional progress and territorial expansion. “The 13th century is described as a “Plantagenet spring after a

grim Norman winter”. The symbol of this spring is the century of new Gothic Style. One of the best example of Gothic architecture is Salisbury Cathedral. Also it is a century of growing literacy which is closely connected with 12th century cultural movement, which is called Renaissance. In England Renaissance was a revolution in thoughts, ideas and learning, foundation of universities, the development of the Common Law and the Parliament, and emergence of English as the language of the nation.”(36) The 14th century brought the disasters of the Hundred Years' War (1337 -–1453), the Peasants’ revolt (1381), the extermination of the population by the Black Death (1348 – 1349). Although the outbreak of the Black Death in 1348 dominated the economy of the 14th century, a

member of adversities had already occurred in the preceding decades. Severe rains in 1315 and 1316 caused famine, which lead to the spread of disease. Animal epidemic in succeeding of currency in the 1330s. Economic expansion, which had been characteristic of the 13th century, had slowed to a halt. The Black Death, possibly a combination of bubonic and pneumonic plagues, carried off from one-third to one half of the population. In some respects it took time for its effects to become detrimental to the economy, but with subsequent outbreaks, as in 1361 and 1369, the population declined further, causing a severe labor shortage. By the 1370 wages had risen dramatically and prices of foodstuffs fallen. Hired laborers, being fewer, asked for higher wages and better food, and peasant

tenants, also fewer, asked for better conditions of tenure when they took up land. Some landlords responded by trying to reassert labor services where they had been commuted. “ The Ordinance(1349) and Statute (1351) of Laborers tried to set maximum wages at the levels of the pre-Black Death years, but strict enforcement proved impossible. The Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 was one result of the social tension caused by the adjustment needed after the epidemic. Great landlords saw their revenues fall as a result of the Black Death, although probably by only about 10 percent, whereas for the lower orders of society real wages rose sharply by the last quarter of the 14th century because of low grain prices and high wages.”(37) Edward III ruined the major Italian banking companies in