Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии — страница 6

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such courts as the King’s Bench, Common Pleas, Exchequer and the Chancery Court was established to give redress in circumstances where other courts provided on solution. Edward was pious, but resisted any increase of papal authority in England. Conservators of the Peace, the forerunners of Justices of the Peace, were also established as an institution.”(18) Foreign policy, namely the unification of the island’s other nations, occupied much of Edward’s time. A major campaign to control Llywelyn ap Gruffydd of Wales began in 1277, and lasted until Liywelyn’s death in 1282. In 1301, the king’s eldest son was created Prince of Wales, a title still held by all mail heirs to the crown. Margaret, Maid of Norway and legitimate heir to the Scottish crown, died in 1290, leaving

a disputed succession in Scotland. Edward was asked to arbitrate between thirteen different claimants. John Baliol, Edward’s first choice, was unpopular, his next choice, William Wallace, rebelled against England until his capture and execution in 1305. Robert Bruce seized the Scottish throne in 1306, later to become a source of consternation to Edward II. Edward died en rout to yet another Scottish campaign in 1307. His character found accurate evaluation by Sir Richard Baker, in A Chronicle of the kings of England: “He had in him the two wisdoms, not often found in any, single. Both together, seldom or never: an ability of judgement in himself, and a readiness to hear the judgment of others. He was not easily provoked into passion, but once in passion , not easily appeared,

as was seen by his dealing with the Scots; towards whom he showed at first patience, and at last severity. If he was censured for his many taxations, he may be justified by his well bestowing them; for never prince laid out his money to more honour of himself , or good of his kingdom.” (19) Edward II (1307-1327 AD) Edward II the son of Eleanor of Castille and Edward I, was born in 1284. He married Isabella, daughter of Philip IV of France, in 1308. Eleanor bore him two sons and two daughters. “Edward was as much of a failure as a king as his father was a success. He loved money and other rewards upon his mail favourites, raising the ire of the nobility. The most notable was Piers Gaveston, his homosexual lover. On the day of Edward’s marriageу to Isabella, Edward preferred

the couch of Gaveston to that of his new wife. Gaveston was exiled and eventually murdered by Edward’s father for his licentious conduct with the king. Edward’s means of maintaining power was based on the noose and the block – 28 knights and barons were executed for rebelling against the decadent king.” (20) Edward faired no better as a solder. The rebellions of the barons opened the way for Robert Bruce to grasp much of Scotland. Bruce’s victory over English forces at the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, ensured Scottish independence until the union of England and Scotland in 1707. In 1324 the war broke out with France, prompting Edward to sent Isabella and their son Edward (later became Edward III) to negotiate with her brother and French king, Charles IV. “Isabella

fell into an open romance with Roger Mortimer, one of the Edward’s disaffected barons. The rebellious couple invaded England in 1327, capturing and imprisoning Edward. The king was deposed, replaced by his son, Edward III.”(21) Edward II was murdered in September 1327 at Berkley castle, by a red-hot iron inserted through his sphincter into his bowels. Comparison of Edward I and Edward II was beautifully described by Sir Richard Baker, in reference to Edward I in A Chronicle of the Kings of England “His great unfortunate was in his greatest blessing, for four of his sons which he had by his Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have outlived him, and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born.” ( 22 ) A strong

indictment of a weak king.” (23) Edward III (1327-1377) Edward III, the eldest son of Edward II and Isabella of France, was born in 1312. His youth was spent in his mother’s court , until he was crowned at the age of 14, in 1327. Edward was dominated by his mother and her lover, Roger Mortimer, until 1330, wen Mortimer was executed and Isabella was exiled from court. Philippa of Hainault married Edward in 1328 and bore him many children. The Hundred Years’ War occupied the largest part of Edward’s reign. It began in 1338-1453. The war was carried during the reign of 5 English kings. Edward III and Edward Baliol defeated David II of Scotland, and drove him into exile in 1333. The French cooperation with the Scots, French aggression in Gascony, and Edward’s claim to the