Династия Плантагенетов в истории Англии — страница 10

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England by failing to repay loans early in the Hundred Years’ War. This provided opening for English Merchants, who were given monopolies of wool exports by the crown in return for their support. The most notable was William de la Pole of Hull, whose family rose to noble status. Heavy taxation of wool exports was one reason for the growth of the cloth industry and cloth exports in the 14th century. The wine trade from Gascony was also important. In contrast to the 13th century, no new towns were founded, but London is particular continued to prosper despite the ravage of plague. “In cultural terms, a striking change in the 14th century was the increasing use of English. Although an attempt to make the use of English mandatory in the law courts failed because lawyers claimed

that they could not plead accurately in the language, the vernacular began to creep into public documents and records. Henry of Lancaster even used English when he claimed the throne in 1399. Chaucer wrote in both French and English, but his important poetry is in the latter. The early 14th century was an impressive age for manuscript illumination in England, with the so-called East Anglian school, of which the celebrated Luttrell Psalter represents a late example. In ecclesiastical architecture the development of the Perpendicular style, largely in the second half of the 14th century, was particularly notable.”(38) Bibliography 1.       Черняк Е.Б. Тайны Англии: Заговоры, интриги, мистификации. – М.

Остожье, 1996 2.       Грин Вивиан Х. Безумные короли: Личная травма и судьба народов. – М. Зевс, Феникс, 1997. 3.       Цингейт Филиппа Королевские династии: учебное пособие для дополнительного образования – Москва, Росмэн, 1997 4.       История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д. Удальцова, Е.А. Косминского и О.Л. Вайнштейна, 2-е издание, ОГИЗ – 1941. 5.       Douls Louisa Desaussure Richard II in the early

chronicles. The Hague- Paris, Mouton- 1975. 6.       Fryde Natalie The tyranny and fall of Edward II, 1321-1326. Cambridge etc.: Cambridge univ. Press – 1979. 7.       Costain Thomas B. The three Edwards. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1958. 8.       Costain Thomas B. The Last Platagenets. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1962. 9.       Harvey John, The Plantagenets. New York – 1973 10.   Stubbs William The early Plantagenets. London(a.o.0, Longmans, Green and co., 1909. 11.   Appleby John Tate, John, king of England. N.Y., Knopf-1959. 12.   Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888.

13.   Costain Thomas B. The conquering family. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1962. 14.   The Cambridge Illustrated dictionary of British Heritage. Edited by Alan Isaacs and Jennifer monk. - 1986 15.   Costain Thomas B. The magnificent century. Garden City (N.Y.), Doubleday – 1951. 16.   Tout T.F. Edward the first. London, Macmillian – 1920. 17.   Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. A biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958. 18.   Who’s who in history. Vol. 1 British Isles 55 B.C. To 1485. – 1960. 19.   The Oxford companion to British history. Edited by John Cannon. Oxford U.P. 1997. References. 1.   Stubbs William The early Plantagenets. London(a.o.0, Longmans, Green and co., 1909. 43p.

2.   Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 29p. 3.   Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 48-49p. 4.   Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 56-61p. 5.   Green Alice Stopford, Henry the Second. Lnd. – N.Y., Macmillian – 1888. 63p. 6.   Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. A biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958.10p. 7.   Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. A biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958. 12-13 p. 8.   Henderson Philip Richard, Coeur de Lion. A biography. Lnd. Hale – 1958.21-23p. 9.   История средних веков. Том I, под редакцией А.Д.